Contemporary Problems of Social Work 2016
The Digital Model of the Formation of Human Capital as Part of the Socioeconomic and Spatial Reactive Projects
Автор/Author: Maloletko A.N., Mkrttchian V.S., Tolstykh T.O., Vinogradova M.V., Bikbulatova A.A., Kaurova O.V.
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Currently, related to investments in human capital development in most companies, more than enough. This is largely due to objective reasons. Russian education system is going through hard times: a never-ending education reform, the economic crisis in the country, the disappearance from the educational market by way of reorganization or merger of educational institutions, a significant reduction in funding, the demographic “pit” – all these problems put a society faced with the need to find new ways of development of the educational system. To provide movement strategy is necessary to understand the cause-effect relationships of current problems [2; 5; 11; 13].
In January 2016 Gaidar Forum Chairman of Sberbank German Gref has raised the question of the need to find new models of projects that are able to ensure the competitiveness of Russian projects. The main criterion for the competitiveness of German Gref called speed. The world standard in digital technology worldwide steel flexible Agile-methodologies based on the following principles:
- Persons and communication between them instead of building super stiff processes;
- The concentration on the product and not on the design documentation;
- The priority of the partnership contract in place;
- Constant willingness is to change.
These principles allow in a reactive mode to develop design strategies focused on technological leadership. The implementation of complex and inter-dimensional socio-economic projects in the field of digital technologies is impossible without a major driving force – an innovative human capital [17; 18].
In the context of the implementation of competitive projects training system must adequately respond to regional labor market demands, to produce qualified professionals able to work effectively in such projects to ensure long-term needs of the digital economy in the professional qualification renewal and replenishment of staff [5; 8; 12; 16].
Here is revealed the main contradiction between the state of vocational education systems and digital economy need in qualified personnel. This contradiction is expressed as follows:
– Vocational education varies spontaneously due to the opening of private educational institutions, representative offices and branches of the capital's universities, focused not on the needs of the economy and the labor market implementing complex inter dimensional or social projects, but only to meet the effective demand for educational services from the public and improve thus, their own financial situation;
– There are no scientifically based approaches to rational allocation of professional education of different levels of the network of institutions and the direction that leads to an excess of (or lack of) qualified personnel in certain areas and in the whole region;
– Does not meet modern labor market needs of special structures, training that is conducted in educational institutions in the region, under the direction of many of the necessary training of qualified personnel are not represented in principle;
– The ratio of the number of graduates of educational institutions of higher, secondary and elementary education does not match the structure of the economy needs for specialists with a certain level of education;
– There is no scientific justification for the principles of formation of state order for training of qualified personnel [7; 11; 13; 16].
Development of long-term human resource balance based on the methodology of forecasting of demand and supply in the implementation of projects between the space market, taking into account regional peculiarities and possibilities of the regional system of vocational education should be the basis of the mechanism of regulation of the regional vocational training system based on the needs of the region.
The economic crisis and complicated international political situation has put forward as the primary, task of developing national industry and business, which is associated with the formation, strengthening and development of the capacity of enterprises. One of the fundamental laws of the organization, the law of self-organization, says that the organization is not only to survive but also to develop, it must have the capacity that exceeds the sum of external and internal influences on it.
This law is also valid for projects. Other things being equal, effectively implemented only those projects which, in spite of the challenging external factors, will be able to form and strengthen their “immunity”, a significant proportion of which people make. This is project customers, and is the project team, and, is of course, consumers, satisfaction with the implemented project which is the key criterion for success of the project [18; 19].
If we look at industrial enterprises, businesses and educational institutions from this perspective, it becomes clear that the objectives of all the participants in these groups are the same. The industrial companies as project participants are, interested in innovation-driven professional personnel to efficiently and effectively carry out government orders. Business – structures involved in projects that are interested in the training of staff in order to effectively and efficiently carry out their business processes, extending the base satisfied with the quality of loyal customers, resulting in the increase of competitiveness, market expansion, entering new markets and winning the leading position. With regard to educational institutions, their survival and development depends directly on the demand for professionals in the labor market.
The implementation of major cross-sectorial and inter-territorial projects, usually involves more than one region and entails a significant change in the territorial infrastructure. Space-sectorial projects with a “blurred” territorial borders, using a variety of industry technology, those involving the resources of different regions united us in the category Spatial reactive projects (SRP). Methodological principles of such projects are :
- Innovative orientation;
- Speed and flexibility;
- Dynamism and customer focus;
- The balance of effects and interests of participants;
- Cooperation and mutual assistance are.
These principles should be the base and the formation of an infrastructure component of the SRP implementation of projects. One of the most important components of the infrastructure to ensure the successful implementation of space-industry projects, of course, is the formation of human capital in project engineering.
One of the basic principles that we have defined for the SRP projects, is the speed and flexibility, so focus on the existing training system as a mid-level staff, and administrative personnel, there is no possibility.
The main problem areas in the education system are the following:
- Unstable political and economic situation does not allow the industrial enterprises and business entities to develop long-term strategies;
- Lack of scientific approach in determining the forecast needed to state the number of jobs and the list of professions even though in the long run for a few years;
- Lack of motivation in the rapid response of educational institutions on the orders of society and the dynamic changes in the labor market;
- Inconsistency (disunity) educational programs and methodical support of various levels of education;
- The absence of the necessary level of funding in educational institutions are for the timely update of methodological and information support, infrastructure upgrades.
These effects lead to the fact that the rapidly changing labor market demands for complex SRP projects existing educational system cannot always meet the [18; 19].
Since the problems relate to all the participants: the state as a whole, region, large industrial companies, small and medium-sized businesses, vocational training institutions, and in the search for solutions must take active participation of all the structures. No single solution for the whole complex of problems is not present and cannot be. We are dealing with the system and, therefore, the output can only be a creation of another system, bridging the existing problem areas. It is the formation of a unified business-education system at the regional level, providing the solutions and motivating their implementation at different levels and in different ways will be way out of the impasse.
We offer a digital model of the educational project of the cluster integrating based on public-private partnership projects SRP-objectives, financial contribution to project participants, the potential of educational institutions and individual teachers, the legal and image support territorial authorities. Such symbiosis potential project participants will solve the issues of the rapid reaction of the education system to the needs of businesses in the necessary personnel as working skills and engineering, and controlling.
But if all parties interested in the implementation of projects and, consequently, in the formation of human capital, why this problem can not be solved over the years? Why the inconsistency of targets educational institutions and regional labor market still has a place to be? The answer is not as simple as it seems, as the decision depends on a huge number of criteria, limitations and human factors. According to human resources professionals in the market, each employee of middle management should receive additional training at least once a year. In reality, corporations solve problems, based on their own needs. For example, one employee sent for training due to lack of his professional knowledge, and the second – as a motivational factor. And, at first glance, like right when the company is interested in the development of its employees when investing in “human capital”, but those who are directly involved in the conduct and organization of seminars and trainings think differently. Most often, businesses have two diametrically opposed objectives: first – to demonstrate their interest in improving the quality of the knowledge worker, and the second – the dismissal of an employee.
But, more importantly, what converge leading seminars and trainings, internal corporate education does not affect the career and does not guarantee higher wages employee. Companies prefer to train personnel in their professions, and not to guarantee career.
The main advantage of the educational project of the cluster – is the possibility of practical application of knowledge, which is realized through cooperation of industry, science, business and education projects through the creation of a closed loop, which brings together the interests of the customers of educational services, consumers and artists.
The foundation of the digital model of the formation of human capital under the SRP-class projects is the interaction of motivations, the interests of all participants in the project. For production companies interested in the project's success, in the long-term effectiveness of the enterprise in the future long-term cooperation with other project-participating companies, the motivation of investing in human capital is to match the professionalism of project tasks. For enterprise employees with the opportunity to participate in the project, the motivation is primarily to obtain additional income opportunities and professional growth. The acquisition of new skills and competencies are to increase the competitiveness of the employee in the labor market, which gives him confidence in the future. Also, incentive schemes for workers on training in new qualifications competencies can be assistance in obtaining preferential loans, housing, medical services, etc.
Interest in educational institutions in the development of the project under the program should be an opportunity to attract extra-budgetary funds and additional professors’ salary.
The motivation for the insurance companies, banks, medical companies, recruitment agencies, construction companies and other organizations involved in the formation of personnel potential of the project is to attract new customers, image and profit.
The implementation of social policy, formation of orders for specific jobs, guaranteed employment, financial support for private capital development of material and methodical base of educational institutions, of course, should be the motivational lever for territorial authorities.
Once determined the dominant vector of interests of each participant of the project, the main task is to develop a digital model, forming a single vector of interest, the movement by which provide a synergistic effect for all participants. The process of implementing a digital model of the formation of human capital under the SRP projects includes the steps of evaluating the objectives of the project, selection of potential participants, and their potential implementation of educational programs, continuous quality monitoring and process control.
A possible mechanism for the implementation of human capital formation for the tasks SRP project is a public-private partnership (PPP), just taking into account the interests and territorial governments, and businesses. PPP implementation can be carried out the following options:
- Formation of the Fund “endowment” a non-profit organization;
- Cooperation agreement / protocol of intentions;
- Contracts of simple association;
- The establishment of a non-profit organization;
- The establishment of a commercial organization is.
Another mechanism in the formation and development of human capital under the SRP project is the design and implementation of individual educational trajectories of student’s mechanisms under the order of business structures [18; 19; 20]. This tool requires the following tasks:
- Identification of the needs of employers in the required professional competencies for the company;
- On the basis of the needs of employers forming applications for training under the order;
- An agreement with companies of choice of educational institutions and educational programs;
- Formation together with an educational institution under the individual program of the enterprise order;
- Agreement with the educational institution and the business structure of the educational process;
- Support the educational process from the perspective of contractual terms; - cooperation with the educational institution on the methodological support of the educational process;
- Obtained legal registration agreement and support of the educational process from the perspective of contractual terms;
- Development and the formation of schemes of individual educational trajectories implementations are.
Among the most important tasks of the implementation of SRP projects include the development of motivational and incentive schemes effective interaction between business and educational systems, as well as the formation of a database of personnel reserve system based on professional, business and psychological portfolio of students, which includes:
– Evaluation of the professional capacity of students;
– Development of professional, business and psychological portfolio;
– Organization of the system of personnel reserve on issues relevant to the region's professional qualifications.
A huge role in creating a project cluster management depends on the maturity of leaders at all levels and of all the structures. A lack of understanding the importance of human resource capacity, the need for inserting investment in professionalism, flawed on all sides by the phrase “no one is irreplaceable”, in the absence of systemic vision of the internal and external problems is a significant obstacle to the implementation of any educational projects.
An effective leader today is a person who is aware of the need of systemic and strategic thinking, understanding that the professionalism of personnel and employees – is the key to the success and competitiveness. The rapid development of market economy laws in Russia led to the fact that many managers, entrepreneurs and business leaders learned the laws of self-management, in extreme conditions, from their own mistakes. Perhaps that is why they understand the importance of professionalism, not in words, and how ready to invest in training their employees, and to share lessons learned.
Learning, the constant search for new, trivial approach is quality SRP project manager. A corporate educational project of the campus, exchange of experience, the search for optimal solutions by “brainstorming” will give the same synergistic effect, which will result in efficiency and effectiveness. Naturally, the implementation of such a project without the direct leadership, participation and commitment of all parties can be held.
The advantages of the educational project of the campus as a unified educational environment are:
- The ability to self-organization and self-development;
- Flexibility and the ability to timely and adequate respond to emerging conditions in the implementation of the objectives of the project;
- In real time to analyze and synthesize emerging issues and challenges, offering science-based solutions to them;
- The possibility to train specialists under the orders of potential projects for production and business, are able to solve them effectively.
Creation of educational and professional environment will integrate existing knowledge and practical skills in the common understanding.
Education through practice, mentoring will enable students to engage in real-world problem situations, to use the methods and achievements of the world of work. Implementation of the project, team work and forms of “learning in an informal atmosphere” (informal learning) to help students of different educational levels and different specialties in constant contact with each other, share their experience and findings and business experiences.
The effect of the project can be direct or indirect.
Direct is to improve the quality of education services in their orientation on the formation of the specific skills required for practical problems in the formation of orders for jobs in the implementation of training under orders and as a result, to ensure the employment of students. The effect is manifested even when education makes students' mobile and professionally and socially. The indirect effect is to increase the output and improve its quality in the sphere of material production by implementing competitive projects in the field of digital technologies.
Discussion questions about the quality of training for different tasks of society, including for major inter dimensional and social projects at the time stimulated the Bologna process, and already years, representatives of the educational systems debating the need to work under the orders of enterprises and businesses, as well as educational services. During these debates sometimes leaves the main goal, which is formulated Berlin Communiqué, 2003: “... on the European level, Ministers call upon the European Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education ENQA ... to develop agreed standards, procedures and guidelines for quality assurance ...”, and “responsible for quality assurance higher education is primarily the responsibility of the educational institutions themselves ...”.
That is, first of all, we are talking about the need to establish a system that ensures the quality and relevance of educational services and the mechanism for implementing such a system, the educational institution should define itself.
But when it comes to creating a system to ensure the quality and relevance of educational services, it is necessary to determine that under such a system is understood, above all, a complex of factors, parameters and measures of educational technologies and programs implemented in the educational project cluster, and showing how the system complies with the European standards. educational services in the educational system of the campus project is a closed control loop, in which the demand for the quality of education plays a role of a regulator of educational activities and the introduction of innovative educational technologies. This situation defines two main areas of activity of the educational project of the campus: on the one hand, meeting the demand for professionals required profile, on the other hand – the formation of proposals for the implementation of projects at various levels. It is necessary to carry out training and “custom” and “narrow” specialization, taking into account industry-specific SRP projects. The total infrastructures of educational services in the formation of human capital under the SRP projects are include projects consumer markets, educational institutions, and, accordingly, demand and supply of educational services. It is for this chain, in collaboration of these markets, there is the identification of needs, demand and transformation in managing the impact of human capital development proposals. The whole control system of the formation and development of human capital should carry out supply and demand balance and to promote the effective implementation of the competitiveness and the major Russian projects.
The result of the policy of integration of interests of participants of large inter dimensional and socially relevant innovation, based on digital models, the projects may address educational project business campuses, combining educational institutions with different levels of education, started with the financial participation and the problem of one or more SRP projects and integrate the principles of public-private partnerships into a single education, innovation and information complex series of production facilities, institutes, institutions of higher, secondary vocational and general education. The main advantage of this integration is the possibility of practical application of the knowledge acquired, implemented through cooperation of industry, science, business and education projects. Principles of corporate systems and mechanisms of state-private partnership will allow:
– To resolve issues with updating the material and methodical base of educational institutions;
– Create a unified education (performance support) the quality support system, providing its participants (both students and teachers) different levels of access to the information when it is needed;
– Use of new technologies, including digital models.
In the area of human development, such a system implements the demanded labor market competencies required for the implementation of SRP projects. Education through practice, mentoring will enable students to engage in real-world problem situations, to use the methods and achievements of the world of work. Implementation of the project, the team forms of work and “learning in an informal atmosphere” (informal learning) will help students design the campus at various levels of education and different specialties in constant contact with each other, share their experience and findings and business experiences, which certainly cannot impact on the competitiveness and efficiency of major inter dimensional and social projects.