Contemporary Problems of Social Work


ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT.

Species composition and structure of the complex of pests of woody plants in plantations of Moscow

Автор/Author: Plocin D. S., Reutskaya V. V.

Аннотация/Annotation:
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Список литературы/References:

1. Belov D. A. Ecology, monitoring and environmental management // Scientific. Tr., vol. 302

(1). – M.: Moscow state forest University, 2000. – S. 26 – 33.

2. Belov D. A. Ecologia, monitoring I racional’noe prirodopol’zovanie // M: MGUL. - 2000. - No.

302 - S. 26 – 33.

3. Bulletin Of Moscow State Forest University - Forest Gazette / / No. 1. – Belov, D. A.: MSFU,

2008. – P. 73 – 78.

4. Vestnik Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Federal Lesa – Lesnoy Vestnik / / No. 1. – Belov D.

A.: MGUL, 2008. – S. 73-78.

5. Bulletin Of Moscow State Forest University - Forest Gazette / / No. 7. – Belov D. A.: MSFU,

2012. Pp. 105 – 110.

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CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL WORK VOLUME 1, No. 2, 2015

6. Vestnik Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Federal Lesa – Lesnoy Vestnik / / No. 7. – Belov D.

A.: MGUL, 2012. – S. 105-110.

7. Bulletin Of Moscow State Forest University – Forest Gazette / / No. 2. – Mozolevskiy E. G.,

Belova N. K., Kulikova E. G. – Moscow: Moscow state forest University, 2000. – Pp. 14 – 28.

8. Vestnik Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Federal Lesa – Lesnoy Vestnik / / No. 2. –

Mozolevskaya E. G., N. K. Performed, Kulikova E. G. – M.: MGUL, 2000. – S. 14-28.

9. Monitoring the state of forest and urban ecosystems / ed. by B. C. Shalaeva, E. G. Mozolevskiy.

– M.: MSFU, 2004. – P. 196-208.

10. Monitiring sostoyania lesnyh I gorodskih ecosystem / [Pod red. V. S. Shalaeva, E. G.

Mozolevskoy]. – M.: MGUL, 2004. – S. 196-208.

References in Roman script:

1. Belov D. A. Jekologija, monitoring i racional’noe prirodopol’zovanie // Nauch. tr., vyp. 302

(1). – M.: MGUL, 2000. – S. 26 – 33.

2. Belov D. A. Ecologia, monitoring I racional’noe prirodopol’zovanie // M: MGUL. - 2000. - №

302 - S. 26 – 33.

3. Vestnik Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta Lesa - Lesnoj Vestnik // №1. – Belov D.

A.: MGUL, 2008. – S. 73 – 78.

4. Vestnik Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta Lesa – Lesnoy Vestnik // №1. – Belov D.

A.: MGUL, 2008. – S. 73-78.

5. Vestnik Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta Lesa - Lesnoj Vestnik // №7. – Belov D.

A.: MGUL, 2012. – S. 105 – 110.

6. Vestnik Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta Lesa – Lesnoy Vestnik // №7. – Belov D.

A.: MGUL, 2012. – S. 105-110.

7. Vestnik Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta Lesa – Lesnoj Vestnik // №2. –

Mozolevskaja E. G., Belova N. K., Kulikova E.G. – M.: MGUL, 2000. – S. 14 – 28.

8. Vestnik Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta Lesa – Lesnoy Vestnik // №2. –

Mozolevskaya E. G., Belova N. K., Kulikova E. G. – M.: MGUL, 2000. – S. 14-28.

9. Monitoring sostojanija lesnyh i gorodskih jekosistem / pod red. B. C. Shalaeva, E. G.

Mozolevskoj. – M.: MGUL, 2004. – S. 196-208.

10. Monitiring sostoyania lesnyh I gorodskih ecosystem / [Pod red. V. S. Shalaeva, E. G.

Mozolevskoy]. – M.: MGUL, 2004. – S. 196-208.

Содержание статьи/Article:

Green plantations are the most important habitat forming and environment protection

factor, providing comfort and quality of human habitat, and compulsory and essential element

of the urban landscape. Green plantations perform many useful functions in the city such as

soil protection, erosion control and sanitary- hygienic protection, they also provide the human

need for rest, reducing tensions and conflicts of the urban environment, improving the living

conditions of human habitat and promoting sustainable development of the city.

Green plantations of Moscow constitute a single system of its life support, it composed of the

same or similar complexes of species of living organisms, it influenced by the same or similar

factors of adverse impact of the environment.

A brief characteristic of some common and important pests of woody plants specific for

green plantings and urban forests of Moscow is given below.

SPECIES COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX PESTS OF WOODY WOODY PLANTS OF

MOSCOW IN PLANTATIONS

Table 1 - Number of established species of herbivorous arthropods found in stands of Moscow

Environmental groups

arthropod pests

Squad The total

number of

species

Acariformes

Homoptera

Hemiptera

Соleoptera

Lepidoptera

Нуmenoptera

Diptera

Generative organs - - - 6 11 4 - 21

Open living needles

- and leaf-eating ,

including

- - - 43 210 35 - 288

Skeletonize - - - 23 - 4 - 27

Forming a spider nest - - - - 14 1 - 15

Twirl list - - - - 36 1 - 37

Tube twirl - - - 5 - - - 5

Open living sucking 7 113 - - - - - 120

Private living sucking - - 1 - - - - 1

Gall-making 44 15 - - 1 22 27 109

Undermines - - - 8 79 11 10 108

With a mixed type of

damage

- - - - 5 - - 5

Drillers (pests shoots) - - - - 4 - - 4

Stem - - - 84 6 4 - 94

Pests roots - - - 9 - - - 9

Total species 51 128 1 150 316 76 37 759

Analyzing the systematic composition of pests, it can be seen that the basic share of their

proportion are insects. [5]

The most varied and numerous in the plantations of Moscow presented two groups of insects:

1 - insects produce rough grazing or skeletonization of leaves and needles, 2 - mined leaves and

needles insects. The richness and diversity of these two groups due to the fact that they both

have favorable habitat and form a natural reserve in urban forests, whose plantations close in

its properties to natural. Moreover, miners is further protected from exposure to its hidden way

of life in the tissues of leaves and needles in the urban environment. [1]

Among the significant with increased number of pests in local areas green plantations in

Moscow are:

sucking pests: aphids on linden, elm, maple, ash, poplar, honeysuckle and apple, birch and

Elm psylla, Coccidae acacia, willow zapyatovidnaya and scale insects, spider mites on spruce

and linden;

miners: the most successful in urban plantings are living representatives of Private

phyllophages. Mined insects, or miners is one of these groups.

In general complex of leaf-mining insects in plantations of Moscow is significant and

dissimilar, it is represented by 121 species, of which only one - Coleophora sibiricella Falkovitsh,

develops on conifers (Larix spp.)

Among the types of miners encountered in urban plantations of Moscow, 39.7% of the

species are common, 27.3% - rare, 21.5% occur singly, and only 11.5% of the species are capable

of producing miners outbreak or have permanently high numbers in urban plantations. [3]

Rare species in conditions of Moscow are of Coleoptera - Trachys minuta Linnaeus, Zeugophora

subspinosa Fabricius, Orchestes alni Linnaeus and Or. subfasciatus Gyllenhal, from Hymenoptera

- Fenusa ulmi Sundevall and Heterarthrus aceris Kaltenbach, of Diptera

– 5 species of the family Agromyzidae from Lepidoptera

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

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CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL WORK VOLUME 1, No. 2, 2015

– 10 species of the family Stigmellidae,

– 9 species of the family Gracillariidae, Coleophora ahenella Heinemann and C. milvipennis

Linneus, and Bucculatrix bechsteinella Bechstein & Scharfenberg.

Singly occur: Orchestes rusci Herbst (Coleoptera), Heterarthrus nemoratus Fallun

(Hymenoptera), 12 species of the family. Stigmellidae, 5 species of the family. Gracillariidae and

Coleophoridae, Coptotriche angusticollella Duponchel and Phyllocnistis sorhagenella Laders

(Lepidoptera). In most cases, a low level of the number of these species is associated with a

small fraction of their forage plants in the range of plantations of Moscow.

Mass species are: Isochnus sequensi Stierlin (Coleoptera) and the following members of

the order Lepidoptera - Stigmella aucupariae Frey, St. betulicola Stainton, St. malella Stainton

(Stigmellidae), Cameraria ohridella Deschka, Dimic, Gracilapa syringella Fabricius, Phyllonorycter

issikii Kumata, Ph. populifoliella Treitschke, Ph. sagitella Bj erkander, Micrurapteryx gradatella

Herrich-Schaffer (Gracillariidae), Coleophora binderella Kollar, C. fuscedinella Linnaeus,

C. sibiricella Falkovitsh and Tischeria ekeblandella Bjerkander. 4 species in this group are

facultative miner which indicates that such lifestyle can be a key to successful reproduction in

the conditions of the city. [3]

It distinguished obligate (“permanent”) and facultative miners. The first group includes

insects, complete larval development which takes place within the tissues of the plant

chlorophyll. Their larvae do not change the leaf in which developing. The second - insects

growing in the mines only for a few, but not all larval instars. In all cases, the first larval instars

of miners must go inside plant tissues.

Permanent miners in conditions of plantations of Moscow are 101 species of insects (83.5%); [3]

gall-making pests: among insect gall known in several orders: Coleoptera (gall-making

weevils of the family Curculionidae), Homoptera proboscidians (certain types of aphids

superfamily Aphidoidea and Adelgoidea, psyllites of the family Psyllidae, coccidia suborder

Coccoidea), Lepidoptera (gall-making of the leaf of the family Tortricidae ), Hymenoptera (gall

wasps of the family Cynipidae, Chalcid superfamily Chalcidoidea), certain types of sawflies of

the family Tenthredinidae), Diptera (fam. Cecidomyiidae, Chloropidae, Tephritidae, Agromyzidae,

Anthomyiidae, Lauxaniidae, Lonchaeidae). A significant part of the gall complex (39.4% of the

total number of species) constitute phytophagous mites from the order Acariformes of the

family Eriophyidae.

The first place in number of species of insects are among the Diptera family Cecidomiidae -

25,4%.

The second place is occupied by Hymenoptera - 20.5%. In this case, 2/3 species in the order

falls on the representatives of the family Cynipidae, and 1/3 represented by species of the

family Tenthredinidae. [2]

The third in the number of species is the order Homoptera proboscidians. Gall are

representatives of two superfamilies Aphidoidea of the family Aphididae and Adelgoidea of the

family Adelgidae and Pemphigidae. At the same time, more than 80% of the species of this order

belongs to the superfamily Adelgoidea.

Only one gall of the family Tortricidae from the order of Lepidoptera recorded in Moscow area.

It is Laspeyresia servilleana Dup. - gallic willow leaf roller, damaging willow shoots. [2]

In urban conditions the number of species in the complexes gall on different types of trees

and shrubs, not equivalent. The greatest number encountered on the goat willow (20 species),

due to a high content of proteins in the tissues of this plant, pedunculate oak (16) and linden

(11 species).

It should be noted that linden is of paramount importance and widespread both in typical

urban and in the plantations, close to the natural conditions in Moscow. On linden dominated

phytophagous gall-making mites, on the willow goat - gall-making sawflies and gall midges, in

an oak pedunculate - gall wasps.

Table 2

Systematic composition of arthropod gall

Squad Kind Number of species, %

Arachnida

Acariformes Eriophyidae 39,4

Insecta

Homoptera Aphididae 2,5

Adelgidae 3,3

Pemphigidae 8,1

Lepidoptera Tortricidae 0,8

Hymenoptera Tenthredinidae 6,6

Cynipidae 13,9

Diptera Cecidomyidae 25,4

Gall complex of poplar represented by 8 species, aspen and birch - 7, elm, alder and rowan - 6,

maple and apple - 5 species. On poplar dominated Homoptera proboscidians, while on an aspen

equally represented gall-making phytophagous mites and midges. In other kinds of plants

mentioned above predominate phytophagous mites gall-making from 50% (elm) to 83.3%

(alder) of total species in the complex. [2]

Spruce and larch Hermes on Norway spruce, ticks on linden, bird cherry, birch, causing felt

and corniculatus Gauls, gall-making aphids on poplar and apple, willow sawfly thick-walled;

the most dangerous group is stem insects, mass reproduction of which was prevented in a

timely manner as a result of large-scale sanitary measures undertaken in the summer of 1997

in Moscow; among the most common pests include stem Scolytus - striated Elm and destroyer,

on apple - wrinkled Scolytus, on the oak - oak and birch - birch Scolytus on birch - bark beetle

Trypodendron ladder, withering on the poplars - gray aspen barbel, live on the branches of

poplar - small and on the trunks and roots - a large poplar Sesiidae on linden trees withering -

linden bark krifal on living trees spruce barbed revealed a large spruce beetle dendrokton, on

the branches and trunks of oak, aspen, birch - ash borers. [4]

Green areas of Moscow greatly affected by the activities of harmful insects.

Insect pests in plantations Moscow constitute a large and diverse group of dendrobionts.

Species composition, structure and the occurrence of pests of different types in Moscow

plantations depending on their resistance to the negative impact of the urban environment and

conditions conducive to or hindering their resettlement, as well as, the biological characteristics

of the species.

Among them there are species capable of periodic increases and the number of outbreaks

in these periods they completely destroy or damage the leaves and needles of woody plants,

thereby causing great damage to the complex.

Ключевые слова/Tags1: tree plantation, gall, leaf-mining insect , dendrophilous insects, species composition, insect pests, arthropods, sucking insects, stem pests, root pests