Contemporary Problems of Social Work


The impact function of modern mass media

Автор/Author: Skorokhorova E.U., Borodyanskaya E. A.

Скачать/Download | Посмотреть онлайн/View online

Список литературы/References:

References in English:

1. Bogatova M. I. Resources modeling TV reality//communication in the modern world. Materials

of all-Russian scientific-practical conference Problems of mass communication - Voronezh:

Publishing house of the faculty of journalism, Voronezh state University, 2008. - S. 6

2. Chernikova E. V. Literary work of a journalist: a textbook for University students. - M.:

Gardariki, 2007, - p. 187

3. Zwick V. L. Television news service: proc. textbook for University students studying 030601

journalism. - M.: Unity-Dana, 2013. - 319 p.

4. Yermilov A. Live stream. - M.: Aspect Press, 2010, - 112.

5. Gavrilov K. V. How to make a news story. - SPb.: Amphora, 2007, - p. 299

6. Gurevich S. M. the Economy of the domestic media. - M.: Aspect Press, 2004, p. 288.

7. Kemarskaya I. N. Television editor. - M.: Aspect Press, 2009, - 191 with

8. Knyazev A. fundamentals of television journalism and television reporting.- Bishkek: Kyrgyz-

Russian Slavic University, 2001, to 160 C.

9. Petrova N. E., Raciborska. The language of modern media. The means of verbal aggression.

Moscow: Flinta: Nauka, 2011, - 200 p.

10. Prokhorov A. news as a hoax // the Art of cinema. - 2004, No. 4

11. Skorokhodov E. Yu. Language as a factor in the structuring of social space era: Monograph. –

M.: globe, 2008, - 190 p.

128 129


12. Vladimirova M. B. Transformation of mass consciousness under the influence of the media

(on the example of Russian television). Moscow: Flinta, 2011, - 144.

13. Zvereva N. School journalist. - Nizhny Novgorod: Publishing house Minakova, 2009, 272.

14. Kryukova E. M. Optimization of the management of the Corporation using web technologies.//

Service plus. 2011. No. 4. pp. 102-108.

15. Kryukova E. M., G. V. Krasilnikova Directions of use internal corporate blogging in the

activities of the companies.//Service plus. 2011. No. 2. pp. 96-104.

16. Kryukova E. M., Krasil’nikova G. V., Kulakova T. V. Social media: the real and potential sources

of threats to economic security of the enterprise.//Bulletin of the Academy of economic

security Ministry of internal Affairs of Russia. 2011. No. 3. pp. 53-57.

17. Maloletko A. N., Kaurova O. V., Kryukova E. M. Yukhin K. E. the Role and importance of modern

media in marketing communications.//Proceedings of the Russian state social University.

2014. No. 3 (125). pp. 96-103.

References in Roman script:

1. Bogitova M.I. Resursy modelirovanija televizionnoj real’nosti//Kommunikacija v

sovremennom mire. Materialy Vserossijskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii Problemy

massovoj kommunikacii - Voronezh: Izdatel’stvo fakul’teta zhurnalistiki VGU, 2008. - S.6

2. Chernikova E.V. Literaturnaja rabota zhurnalista: uchebnik dlja studentov VUZov. - M.:

Gardariki, 2007, - 187 s.

3. Cvik V.L. Televizionnaja sluzhba novostej: ucheb. posobie dlja studentov vuzov,

obuchajushhihsja po special’nosti 030601 zhurnalistika. - M.: Juniti-Dana, 2013. - 319 s.

4. Ermilov A. Zhivoj reportazh. - M.: Aspekt Press, 2010, - 112 s.

5. Gavrilov K.V. Kak delat’ sjuzhet novostej. - SPb.: Amfora, 2007, - 299 s.

6. Gurevich S.M. Jekonomika otechestvennyh SMI. - M.: Aspekt Press, 2004, - 288 s.

7. Kemarskaja I.N.Televizionnyj redaktor. - M.: Aspekt Press, 2009, - 191s

8. Knjazev A. Osnovy telezhurnalistiki i telereportazha.- Bishkek: KRSU, 2001, - 160 s.

9. Petrova N.E., Raciburskaja. Jazyk sovremennyh SMI. Sredstva rechevoj agressii. - M.: Flinta:

Nauka, 2011, - 200 s.

10. Prohorov A. Novosti kak mistifikacija // Iskusstvo kino. - 2004, №4

11. Skorohodova E.Ju. Jazyk kak faktor strukturirovanija social’nogo prostranstva jepohi:

Monografija. – M.: Globus, 2008, - 190 s.

12. Vladimirova M.B. Transformacija massovogo soznanija pod vozdejstviem SMI (na primere

rossijskogo televidenija). - M.: Flinta, 2011, - 144 s.

13. Zvereva N.Shkola telezhurnalista. - Nizhnij Novgorod: Izdatel’skij dom Minakova, 2009, -

272 s.

14. Krjukova E.M. Optimizacija upravlenija korporaciej s ispol’zovaniem veb-tehnologij.//Servis

plus. 2011. № 4. S. 102-108.

15. Krjukova E.M., Krasil’nikova G.V. Napravlenija ispol’zovanija vnutrennego korporativnogo

blogginga v dejatel’nosti kompanij.//Servis plus. 2011. № 2. S. 96-104.

16. Krjukova E.M., Krasil’nikova G.V., Kulakova T.V. Social’nye media: real’nye i potencial’nye

istochniki ugroz jekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti predprijatija.//Vestnik Akademii

jekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti MVD Rossii. 2011. № 3. S. 53-57.

17. Maloletko A.N., Kaurova O.V., Krjukova E.M., Juhin K.E. Rol’ i znachenie sovremennyh

mediasredstv v marketingovyh kommunikacijah.//Uchenye zapiski Rossijskogo

gosudarstvennogo social’nogo universiteta. 2014. № 3 (125). S. 96-103.

Содержание статьи/Article:

The reality we see on television, hear on the radio or read in newspapersis not always true.

Quite often the media create a reality that has very little to do with real facts. This applies

not only to Russia, but to other countries as well. “The media generates virtual reality,

artificially created, which often reflects the needs of political and business elite rather than

the audience”[1]. Lately journalistic objectivity has been the focus of both journalists’ and

the general public attention. Mass media often tend to be not just informants and a kind of

educators, but also analysts and advocates who impose their points of view on people. In the

face of fierce competition the media representatives invent new styles to hold the attention of

their audiences, while trying to transformconventional styles.

The audience is becoming the determining factor of any project. Before starting a new

project, “the editors find out, how many people actually read the newspaper, how many of them

subscribe it, and how many buy it retail; if many viewers regularly watch the TV program”[6];

they estimate the age limit, the education level, material well-being of their potential audience.

Based on the above, they choose a particular pattern, which makes it easier to instilspecific

directives in the audience.

In Soviet times,television, the radio and the pressused to be major contributors to the

formation of ideology for society. Each frame, each performance was well thought out. Much

attention was paid to the party life and stories about production pace-makers. Now we do not

have party ideology. But the media persist in creating some “simulated reality”[5]. If earlier the

state had a unified ideology, now we are experiencingthe multiplicity of opinions, which makes

it difficultto distinguish fact from fiction.

Often people do not realize that a particular point of view is being imposed on them. In

shops they will often buy goods, which they have seen in newspapers or on television.They

discuss issuesthat are blazed all over the country. People live in reality created by others. But

is this reality real? Unfortunately, very few people think about it. People just learn about some

situation and act according to the pattern they have been proposed. “By informing a person

about the state of the world and filling their leisure, mass media make an impact on the whole

structure of their thinking, on their perception style, on the type of today’s culture”[15].

Every day, when we turn on the TV, we see pieces of reporting about terrorist attacks, murders,

accidents, and, unfortunately, we have got used to it. People are becoming somewhat addicted

to the psychological effects of mass media. This is especially true when we talk about elderly

people who have actually become”information addicts”. They turn on the TV several times a

dayto find out what is happening to the hostages and then go and take medicine to normalize

theirblood pressure.Television and the Internet exert a strong influence on teenagers too. This

is how young people frequently learn about new drugs, ordifferent youth movements. While the

Internet is not completely controlled yet and it is possible to find advertisements of psychotropic

substances, the TV or the radio can actually ‘advertise’ such ‘hobbies’ with no intention to do

so. Such things can easily bring us to the edge. “Now any studentis able to make drugs! –says

the reporter clapping his hands. – You can just go into the pharmacy and buy drugs available

without prescription”[4]. Andthen, the journalist says what particular drugs (medicine) you

need. Just one word used improperly - and the druggets publicityand may become available

to young people. For example, when singers, actors ormusicians are being interviewed they

are not afraid to talk about their past full of drugs or alcohol. They are not afraid to talk about

their present life eitherwhich is associated with pernicious habits and drug addiction. Thus,

young people have the feeling that these addictions are essential attributes of glory, fame and

material wealth. They begin to think that they can get rid of these addictions at any moment,

just like their idols did. “However, journalists tend to describe a drug addict primarily as a

sick person, thereby justifying antisocial acts and crimes committed by the latterdue to drug

addiction. In a teenager’s mind such deviant behaviour will be fixed as acceptable”[11].

“All means are good when making an impact on mass consciousness, the main thing here is

to get the result,” –this is the opinion shared by a great number of managers in mass media.

The problem of survival in conditions of tough competition forces them to seek new ways of

attracting viewers/readers/listeners. “If the editorialstaffhave decided to present a certain

occurrence as an event, they will employ standard television techniques of”event persuasion”:

a correspondent, reporting with emotion, an image showing us somearticles of everyday life

to make it look trustworthy, a couple of interviews from which you can concludethat onlyone

thingis quite clear: the interviewees saw something and are ready to say something about that.

So from “sunflower seeds” of almost any occurrence they squeezean oily teleimpression of the

event, in other words, this is the way they produce another news hoax”[10].

Media texts are becoming more uninhibited. “The fusion of literary and colloquial styles,

blurring boundaries between formal and informal, public and everyday communication is explained,

asresearchers say, by journalists’ desire to implement the basic strategy of modern mass media –the

strategy of proximity to the addressee”[9]. Journalists want to tell the audience about who the

media figure lives with, whatthey do, what they eat, where they relax and so on. But do people

really need to know that? Celebrities are gaining popularity in this way, while people just learn

about where this or that pop-star has had dinner today. Journalists create a reality in which, in their

opinion, people are interested in private lives of stars. However, if you look at itobjectively, such

informationis not important or relevant at all. Although itis just background information, many

channels turn it into sensation and report it as if it is vitalfor the audience.

The media should pay attention to the moral component of their content. This relates to

issueswhich are unethical to be discussed in the daytime (e.g., sex), when children can watch

124 125


TV. Also the media should not cause panic where it should be avoided. For example, before

the new 2015 year, the main theme of all television news was economic information about

fluctuating exchange ratesof the dollar and the euro. Journalists engaged financial analysts in

discussions andthey talked about what to do during the crisis facing the country and its people.

As a result, the people who listened to them, rushed to buy 5-7 TVs, 3-4 fridges. There were cases

when bank depositors drew out their money, spent it on buying appreciated currency, and then

had to sell it when the dollar and euro were falling in price. If that news had not been reported

as sensational and extraordinary, such a mass panic could have been avoided. Therefore,

journalists from the very beginning should take into accountall possible repercussions of

their stories and programmes. After all, public opinion is in journalists’ hands and words. And

“thereflection of public opinion generally aims at making animpact on this opinion “[14]. While

talking about rising price on buckwheat, one should considerwhat an ordinary man will do, when

he receives this information. Soon after the news about rising price on buckwheatappeared on

TV, the shelves in shops and supermarkets emptied, and prices on newly supplied buckwheat

soared several times. Demand creates supply. In such cases, entrepreneurs cash in on people’s

widespread concerns.

Today sensation is the basis of success. It allows the media to keep their audiences informed.

The winner is the one who was the first to report the “hot news”. In the pursuit of news,

journalists employ any means, up to apetroaie and appealing to base instincts. Therule of SDL:

sex, death, laughter, is one of the fundamentals in the impact function of the media. Some TV

channels and periodicals actively use this rule, while neglecting professional ethics.

The language of modern mass media has a number of specific features. Arranging events,

journalists “play with the headlines”, express irony in their texts. But “it iscurrently the model,

which the majority of Russian native speakers try to follow in communication process”[11].

Speech stamps invented by journalists seem to have beenimprinted on people’s mindsand are

used now all over the country. Using cliché is a typical feature of the mass media language. If

you are talking about a jury, it must be “strict”; about a family - it is a “firm unit of society”.

There are many other examples of speech stamps, such as“it is not a secret to anybody”;

“hundreds of cars are held in snow captivity”; doctors are “people in white coats” and others.

The media representatives have been talking lately about objectivity of journalistic material.

But starting from the very first step - receiving the news about some event– they decide if it is

worth covering or not. Moreover, a journalist is a human being, so he/she has their own opinion

on a certain situation and no matter how hard they are trying to cover it objectively, their

subjective point of view will be felt. Still, it is good enough if they have no editorial assignment

to express a certain point of view. But, “the audience expectsthe truth, accurate information,

appropriate assessments and reliable forecasts from journalists”[2].

Often journalists give unverified information in the pursuit of sensation; they appeal to

the so-called factoids, rather than facts. Significant social problems remain out of sight of the

media. And whichever reality journalistsconstruct, our society will be living in it.

The “TV people”, in contrast to newspaper and radio journalists, have yet another tool to

influence the audience – videoshot. For example, how or where a video camera is installed in

the interview process. In order to disparage the interviewee, the camera is set abovehis eye

level, but to raise somebody in people’s eyes, the camera is set below the eye level. Let me give

you another example: a journalist is “recording stand-up”while reporting on a meeting. If the

journalist is walking with the protesters inthe same direction, it means he sympathizes with

them, if he is walking in the opposite direction, it means he does not support them. Often such

records are made on purpose, in order to entice the audience to your side. Moreover, this side

of impact is the most hidden from the viewer. It works on a psychological level. If the viewer

may be able to realize from the written text that something is being imposed on them, they will

hardly understand it froma videoshot or after editing.

“Different types of editing help to achieve the desired effect on the audience. Editing can do

a lot: to shift the focus - to makesomething important secondary and vice versa, to change the

course of events (to swap them), to remain silent about the “unnecessary”...Editing is one of

the most effective means of influence on mass consciousness, with the help of which you can

create new life values for the viewer”[12].

Properly chosen sequence of stories can inspire a certain mood. For example, the central

television channelsalways start by broadcasting a “hot topic”, the urgent news that will

interest the viewer. Immediately after the first story, it is important not to lose the viewer’s


In Soviet times there was a certain idea of the layout. Here is an example of the layout of the

main Union news program “Vremya” (“Time”):

– Party life (in the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee, information from party forums)

– Soviet life (sessions of the Supreme Council, government’s decisions)

– Economy (news about production, work achievements)

– News from abroad (first from brotherly countries, then from the capitalist ones)

– Science news and culture

– Sports

– The weather.

Outwardly,today’s news programmes “Vremya” and “The News” on channel 1 have preserved

their original layout.

– Der Spiegel (Brief news announcement)

– The most important events in Russia

– The most important international events

– Events of social and cultural agenda

– Sports news

– Weather forecast[3].

What determines the layout of the program? First, planning: ’Tomorrow’must be thought

out beforehand. And secondly, the information picture of the day. To compile this picture the

following ways are used:

– summaries of news agencies about the events taken place recently, announcements of

upcoming events;

– announcements (sometimes in the form of an invitation for shooting groups) of various

institutions, primarily public, or those which are proceeding, from the general context of the

last days, to become a source of news (for example, suppose some statement, which promises to

be sensational, is being expected, and so on);

– applications of correspondents from other countries, regions forthe topics which they are


The time when the programme appears on the air is essential . Often on federal channels the

teams preparing morning news releases start workingat 2 o’clock in the morning, and the first

broadcast isat 6 o’clock. Then new information starts to arrive. As for the evening news release,

it is rich in analytics. It summarizes theevents of the day. The main news may be reported

in severalscenes, which complementeach other contributing tospectators’ vision of the event.

Before broadcasting,briefings and meetings are held where they decideon the sequence of

subjects and composition of the information block.

Also, the layout depends on editor’s preferences, the concept of the programmeand the style

of the channel. Conventionally, there are three basic traditional stylesofprogrammes: classical,

domestic and publicistic[13]. Classical style focuses on the events of the day. Domestic

style may start with a story which is not necessarily online, but is of interest to the audience.

Publicistic style is characterized by specific presentation of information, when one event or

story can become the core of the whole issue.

126 127


Not long ago there appeared yet another style - infotainment - a special style of presenting

information using elements of entertainment, or show elements. This style is often employed

in youth programmes.

So, if you manage to identify correctly the audience of your channel and a particular

programme, as well as choose the most appropriate style, you can achieve significant results in

affecting the audience.

An important role is played by dramatic composition of release. Since antiquity it has been

known that a drama consists of three compulsory stages: outset, peripeteia and outcome. One

newscast consists of a few dramatic scenes. The program itself has its own drama. The more

intense a separate story or a separate release is, the longer the viewer will sit in front of the


For example, I. N. Kemarskaya, talking about dramatic compositionof a television programme,

uses the image of a “bunch of sausages”, which, in her opinion, very clearly reflects the structure

of any modern television product. “On average, every ten minutes there is a pause on air - an

advertising insert. What is between the ads is a content bank - “sausage”. If the programme

formatis designed for 26 minutes, it has 2-3 content banks. If the format is 52 minutes, then

5-6 banks”[7].

When preparing a news programme, you should also consider such factors as:

– The concept of the programme andviewers involvement with it. For any TV company rating

is always in the foreground.

– Efficiency ofthe news service (the editorial staff like sayings: “Yesterday’s news is no

longer news”, “news is the most perishable commodity”).

– Priority of domestic events in Russia over other events, except extraordinary ones.

– Where there are mysteries, victories and defeats, where you see the positive features of a

negative hero, or vice versa - it is easier to put “hooks” for the audience and thereby to hold

their attention to the screen.

– The creative potential of the team, as well as talents of each member of the staff, the

quality of scenes prepared for broadcasting, and planning.

Strategies employed byfederal channels in arranging information programmes include:

– The main news “opens” the newscast.

– Minor, but still important news, goes between interesting news so that it can attract the

audience attention.

– Domestic news, which has a negative connotation, is not usually reported alongsidethose

involving top government officials, so that the viewer does not have any unwanted associations.

– “The rule of the edge”. People usually remember the first and the last. Therefore, the best

position in the layout is at the beginning and at the end of the programme, which is widely used

in newscasts.

– It is always better to finish with something positive. During the newscast, viewers get a

lot of negative information - reports of serious emergencies, problems, crime in the city etc.,

therefore, the newscast concludes with something pleasant, for example, a story about some

unusual scientific discovery, or an exhibition, or the premiere of a film.

– A significant share of audience attention is attracted by the so-called “der Spiegel”. The

success of thisprogramme to a great extent depends on how interesting and intriguingthis kind

of announcement is written.

– There are twomoments when the programme isat risk of losing its audience: the beginningof

release (if its contents seem boring) and the beginning of the ad unit (if there is nothing of

interestleftthat could make the viewer continue watching the programme). Therefore, before

these moments come, it is necessary to interest the audience with what will happen next.

Modern viewers prefer the formin which the news is reported to the news itself.

The layout of the news programme is an effective tool of information policy. And if it is

properly used, it is possible to control the number of its viewers, as well as to manipulate public


Live broadcast and ban of censorship lifted many restrictions imposed on journalists.

This resulted in coarsening speech and spreading foul language. If earlier a journalist was

considered a man who possessed perfect knowledge of language, now anyone can try himself in

this profession.

Unfortunately, Russian television is losing its national identity in pursuit of Western pattern.

Today the Western way of presenting material is considered to be ideal for Russian journalists.

It can be seen in the manner of speaking, manner ofshooting, manner of arranging scenes. It

can clearly be traced by comparing the newscasts, for example, in 1980 and 2014. The difference

in presentation of material is evident. In Soviet times, famous TV and radio presenters were

distinguished by clear articulation with clear pronunciation. Today’s presenters can make

wrong emphasis or make mistakes in texts. They speak very fast, use appropriate intonation

with logical emphasis in the right places. But local TV presenters seem to have “mush mouth”

and a wide variety of speech defects.

As for manipulation, it may be of different types, ranging from withholding information to

covert lies, while essential information is given in parts.

So what can be done in order not to yield to manipulation? Firstly, you should not trust

everything that is said on TV, written in newspapers or magazines or broadcast on the radio.

Secondly, you should be critical to any information. And we must remember that “emotional

and gullible viewer is an ideal object for manipulation”[12].

In this work we have considered some methods of influencing mass consciousness used by

themedia. The media are becoming a major factor influencing people. And those politicians

and businessmen, who understand this, buy whole mediaholding companies. Throughout the

history of journalism there have been a number of intensive canvassing campaignswithin the

media, sometimes developed into real struggle, to support the ideas of their owners. Moreover,

this happens not only at Federal level, but also at local levels. Nowadays, we are witnessing

worldwide information warfare. Thereby, we admit the fact that information can be equated to

arms in terms of its impact on the audience. In the early 20th century, no one could imagine

that the media would become such a powerful tool of handling people. But now we cannot but

take into account this role of the media in modern society, in order to arrange the information

flow with maximum effect.

Ключевые слова/Tags1: the impact function of mass media, the media text, editing, broadcast layout, video shot, virtual reality.