Contemporary Problems of Social Work


Resocialization of people “third age” in modern Russia

Автор/Author: Rerukh E. V.

Скачать/Download | Посмотреть онлайн/View online

Список литературы/References:

1. Denisova T.V., Malinova L.N. Clinical Gerontology. Selected lectures. - M .: Medical

Information Agency, 2008. - 244 p.

2. Mushkambarov N.N. Gerontology in polemico. - M .: Medical Information Agency, 2011. - 472


3. Pavlyuk S.V., Reruh E.V. Social status of an elderly man in modern Russia. - Stavropol: Kant.

2014. - № 4 (13). - pp. 81-85.

4. Sokolov V.F. Theory and practice of rehabilitation of elderly people: a tutorial. - M .: Flint,

2012. - 200 p.

References in Roman script:

1. Denisova T.V., Malinova L.N. Klinicheskaja gerontologija. Izbrannye lekcii. - M.: Medicinskoe

informacionnoe agentstvo, 2008. - 244 s.

2. Mushkambarov N.N. Gerontologija in polemico. - M.: Medicinskoe informacionnoe agentstvo,

2011. - 472 s.

3. Pavljuk S.V., Reruh E.V. Social’noe polozhenie pozhilogo cheloveka v sovremennoj Rossii. -

Stavropol’: Kant. 2014. - № 4 (13). - S. 81-85.

4. Sokolova V. F. Teorija i praktika reabilitacii grazhdan pozhilogo vozrasta: uchebnoe posobie.

- M.: Flinta, 2012. - 200 s.

Содержание статьи/Article:

Resocialization - a re-socialization that occurs throughout the life of the individual.

Resocialization done changing the settings of the individual goals, norms and values of life.

Resocialization in the life of an elderly person can cover many activities - from receiving primary

skills using the computer to professional retraining.

Resocialization understood as a process of retraining for a new stage in the life and

development of human life.

This topic is caused by a problem with the people of the “third age” in the provision of social

services and the increase in the present conditions the role of institutions for the organization

of social support for older people and their quality of life.

The current real social policy for the elderly is done through a variety of social programs

at different levels (federal, regional and municipal), the implementation of which is aimed at

addressing various current challenges to improve the quality of life of older people.

Contemporary socio-economic, moral and psychological and spiritual situation in Russia is

extremely controversial and much Aspect. Holds instability in the economy, acute deficit of the

federal budget, almost not reduced the number of people with incomes below the subsistence

level, increased differentiation of the population by income, increased tensions in the labor

market, growing arrears of wages, pensions and social benefits, acutely manifest trends distress,

including social deviation.

Throughout the territory of the Russian Federation to create an institution focused on

providing care, education, and medical and social rehabilitation of the elderly. The former

monopoly stationary social services for the population complemented by public (municipal)

system of social services for senior citizens, which is represented by independent institutions

of various types, as well as units that are in the structure of social protection, which is being

implemented to provide social services in all forms of service (non-stationary, semi-stationary

The stationary and urgent social). In addition to traditional Multi-seat home for the elderly,

there were dozens of years, there were specialized agencies with small capacity close to home

living conditions.

Home-based form of social services for the elderly there first at nursing homes and social

security agencies, and then at the centers of social services in the community. The rapid

development of non-stationary forms of social services (home-based, semi-permanent and

urgent social) for stable growth network of stationary institutions played a major role in

shaping the modern integrated system of social services for senior citizens and this is one of

the positive advantages of the current reforms.

You can also call the direction of socio-medical work with older people - a “home resort”

and Mini dispensaries, on the basis of comprehensive social service centers, for social and

recreational activities rabilitatsionnyh and the older generation.

Social and rehabilitative care at home is lonely and living alone and disabled war veterans,

persons with special merits to the Fatherland, and other categories of veterans who for health

reasons can not exercise their right to a spa treatment.

Before older people facing new challenges related to the provision, rehabilitation and

development of individual, creative skills with the capacity of the organism; create optimal

conditions for self-expression through the “employment” in the various spheres of life;

improved quality of life; social and economic independence in the new conditions of existence.

These tasks are not easy to implement, but it is necessary to understand them and they need to

be addressed. Resource of the older generation, their wisdom and experience should be directed

at solving social and economic problems of the country. Unfortunately, in our country at a

certain shortage of manpower, there are processes of artificial belittling the role and status

of alienation from the active life of the elderly. Artificial belittling the social significance of

elderly people inevitably increases the measure of conflict in society, giving rise to an increase

in crime, drug addiction, homelessness and so on. D. Probably entitled to talk about the level

of not only physical but also moral health of society. Social relationships, family and socioeconomic

status are the main determinants of the social status of the elderly person, which is

closely related to the concept of quality of life.

Training and education of older people, aimed at the acquisition and the acquisition of

specialized classes for this kind are also considered productive. Volunteer, volunteer teaching,

education, care of other family members, friends, help young, occupation favorite thing, hobbies

and other activities, both at home and outside it - is also productive activity. [2, 287 c.]

For the elderly education has an essential condition fulfilling life in modern society. In

this formation, on the one hand, helps the elderly living in resolving problems with another -

contributes to satisfying the need for new information. For a man of advanced age education

can act not only in the way of integration into the communicative and cultural space, but also a

means of ensuring the development of personality and psychological stability, respectively. Thus,

the “older generation - is an integral part of education, whose main objective is to promote the

comprehensive development of the person in that period of his life when he reaches retirement

age and representatives.”

Formation of active life position gives a chance for older people to take their rightful social-role

status in Russian society, for their most valuable asset - it’s knowledge, experience and practical

wisdom should be thoughtfully and purposefully used for the development of the country’s

wealth. Our country is not enough to develop methods of educational and psychological and

adaptation work with the elderly. Analyzing the customers of public social service agencies can

identify reduction optimistic positive indicators just at 60-65 year old citizens. They are more

pronounced isolation on personal painful - age problems, decreased activity, and sociability,

but increased passivity, pessimism and frustration. The conclusion about the need to intensify

rehabilitation work with people is pre-retirement and early retirement age increase and changes

in the forms and methods of work with this category of citizens, taking into account changes

in society. Complicates the work with this category of persons the lack of sufficient scientific

and professional literature regarding the practical issues of gerontology and social services.

36 37


Elderly older must provide a decent and quality care during the period of survival and care and

pensioners older ages and, in particular, with those close to retirement age should be targeted

efforts to enhance life position and lengthening the period of disability and self-service.

In the modern period of socio-economic development of the socialization of the elderly

occurs more difficult. Besides the fact that older people who are often perceived decline in the

quality of life of its own as a natural process, so more and the acceleration of scientific and

technological progress in people of retirement age causes difficulties with the development of

knowledge and skills learned behaviors, values, ensure adequate participation in various forms

of social interaction.

Tool for maintaining the ability to social adaptation and integration through getting on

the system based on information on the changing world of education is in old age. Currently,

the developed countries socialization of elderly people recognized as an important means to

improve their quality of life. Changing attitudes and social environment causes destabilization

of the elderly mental state, reducing social and psychological adaptation. Older persons are

forced to simultaneously adapt to age-related changes and social changes at the level of the

group (loss of status, social roles) and at the level of society. Shutdown accompanied many

of them fundamental changes in lifestyle, breaking the usual social ties in conjunction with

indifference on the part of others and the restriction of social and cultural opportunities that

are often accompanied by sustained stress.

Institutions of social protection to help organize pensioners living space so that the means

available to the extent possible to compensate for the effects of aging. However, it requires

a partial reorganization of the functions of institutions sotsiozaschitnoy sphere so that they

are focused on a more rational and constructive solution of social problems of the elderly,

the elderly helped mastering modern patterns of behavior and interaction, prevented social

exclusion; facilitate the adaptation of people at different stages of aging (“young elderly”, old

age, old age, longevity).

In the field of intergenerational relations, including in their own families, the elderly

especially pained uselessness of their existing moral, spiritual and cultural potential. The family

plays a crucial role in the final stages of the life cycle; forming next Wednesday, which could

provide the elderly material assistance and support to ensure the safety and care, to supplement

social contacts, to make a more active lifestyle. At the same time, especially in extended families

are often faced with challenging situations and facts of physical or psychological, direct or

indirect abuse of elderly, ageism and lack of real opportunities for the realization of the right

to fair treatment. Currently, traditional setting in the care of elderly relatives in the family is

changing due to various reasons, of which the most frequent increase in the cost of the family,

expanding urbanization, increasing migration of the workforce. Degree of responsibility for the

provision of traditional family care and meeting the needs of aging people is reduced in parallel

with the load on the traditional guardians (usually women). [1, 24].

In old age narrows social circle, becoming an irreplaceable loss - friends and acquaintances

go out of life, and interest groups, self-help and mutual aid associations, locally organized

community, including religious organizations, are underdeveloped. Houses of culture, libraries,

theaters, museums, concert halls, theaters - are for the elderly the most important sources of

maintaining contact with cultural values, but retirement limits the ability of older people in our

country in the use of the services of these institutions: firstly, due to the weakening incentives

to maintain a certain cultural level, and secondly, due to financial difficulties, and thirdly, for

parts, new elements of modern culture rejected them.

To reduce the influence of negative factors preventing the full participation of older

persons in the process of social communication, it is necessary to develop a special government

measures aimed at increasing the responsibility of the family (adult children, grandchildren)

for the welfare of elderly parents and to strengthen intergenerational family relationships,

provide economic and social support families to care for elderly relatives, provide seniors

the opportunity to expand the range of interpersonal contacts with the help of an informal

group affiliation and by special structures (clubs, counseling centers, dating services, etc.),

to stimulate the development of social participation of older people in the organized life of

the community to ensure access of older people to educational programs, encouraging their

desire for continuing education, especially in the run-up to retirement, to develop a system

of affordable home services for older people, especially those living in small towns and rural


The complexity of maintaining adequate vitality of older people is that the age-related

changes often associated with chronic diseases of varying severity. Accordingly, health care,

medical care and drug provision, care for the sick and the weak become essential components

of social policy for older people require significant expenditures and training of qualified

personnel who are familiar with the peculiarities of the aging of the organism and the specifics

of preserving the health of older people.

To the fore to improve the quality of targeted rehabilitation and recreation activities for

the elderly, which can be obtained on the basis of spa facilities. It is essential that the right

to ensure healthy aging, sensitive to the pressing social, economic, spiritual, psychological and

physiological needs of the elderly. [4, 54 c.]

State and society must take responsibility for ensuring optimal health in later years of life. In

this regard, it is advisable to create in the Russian Federation extensive system of gerontological

care to the population: as no child can not do without a pediatrician, and every elderly person

needs help geriatrics. The implementation of the relevant programs, outreach to the elderly

population in relation to the proper methods of catering services, prevention of morbidity and

premature aging, would greatly contribute to solving the problem of living conditions.

From the above it can be concluded that the social status and mental characteristics of older

people as a social group is very difficult, as experience difficulties in communication; suicidal;

suffer from depression; experiencing guilt in front of deceased loved ones; Experiencing the fear

of death and the fear of being unworthy of burial. In order to solve their problems they need to

create the conditions to achieve their goals. They need: Independence, feasible participation,

care for them, self-fulfillment, respect for their dignity. [3, 85].

The problem is exacerbated by the fact that in our country there is no scientifically-developed

methods of psychophysical adaptation of working with this diverse category of citizens. The

increased number of older people makes it difficult for health and social services, requires

additional funding, develop a common plan of development of social sphere of the country,

taking into account the interests and urgent needs of the regions. Due to lack of funding with

persons of pre-retirement and early retirement age in extremely small volumes being sports

and wellness, prevention, rehabilitation and education on the psychological and physiological

characteristics, gerontology, prevention of disease and premature aging, possibilities of

strengthening and rehabilitation of specific diseases.

Learning how to prolong the life of most people to a great age, obviously, should be changed

and stereotypes of old age, by both the elderly and their relatives, associates and most important

authorities. From paternalistic tutelage and guardianship should pass to stimulating and

activating strategies. It is time to stop treating the elderly as to the weak and sick. The media

should become active promoters and distributors of theories, techniques, and best practices for

the conservation potential health and productive aging. After all, experience shows that the

true impact of an aging population is not as dangerous as they seem.

Interested and capable older people partially government provides opportunities to

participate in the daily life of the community and make it a contribution. Of the elderly requires

only activity and initiative. Given the state of the current job market, especially in the phase of

the crisis, older people wishing to work mostly available jobs that do not meet their expectations,

38 39


skills and desire to realize themselves. For the elderly are increasing restrictions on access to

gainful employment or employment feasible.

Termination of employment due to retirement, especially for those who have a high labor

potential and can continue to be productive professional activity, is a powerful stress factor.

Indeed, the possibility of self-realization in work is a necessary condition for the extension

of active life and healthy aging. Overcoming problems of unemployment of young people who

need favorable conditions to replenish the workforce, are closely linked with the policy of

retirement age.

With age, the level of satisfaction with financial situation is reduced. The vast majority of

people of retirement age assess their financial situation as poor, unstable and insecure, and

believe that their quality of life significantly decreased. The most acute problem is the low

amount of the minimum old-age pension. Able to satisfy the material, cultural and social needs

through the acquisition of goods and services is a defining characteristic for assessing the

standard of living of the pensioner. In today’s market conditions, the acquisition of goods

and services depends on the level of retirement income and the prices of consumer goods and

services. The growth of material wealth behind the growing expectations of older people on the

level and quality of life.

Reform of the pension system has not given the proper result and to improve the level of

pension and bring the pension system in line with the actual folding socio-economic conditions

require further reform of the pension legislation. It may be necessary to establish institutional

means for older people a level of income (pensions), which would allow them to provide for the

needs of all of life and economic independence; ensuring the purchasing power of pensions,

especially in terms of payment for care, the need for which increases with age; continuing

measures to protect the savings of elderly people from the effects of inflation.

The system of social benefits in the Russian context does not implement the principle of

social justice. Than a person who has the status of, for example, former underage prisoners,

better or worse, a man who has a different status? Politics income generation and maintenance

of the social status of the elderly population by concessions (more than 1000), which is closely

related to pensions, and social services, at least, not ethical, not to mention rationality. The

system of state and non-state pensions should be reformed in such a way as not to divide people,

had about the same difficult past into categories and statuses. Fair solution to the problem

seems to stimulate groups of people who have made a significant contribution to the defense

and development of the country a decent pension, and the existing socio-economic problems

of the country (housing, transportation, medical and other software) to solve other worthy

methods. The gap between the financial capabilities of the state and the real possibilities of

budgets at all levels remains significant, and this fact makes us look for better ways to meet

the challenges the state and society issues related to the implementation of constitutional

guarantees for older people.

The quality of physical and mental health as poor. The ability of older people to participate

in society, is directly related to the state of health. In recent years there has been deterioration

in the health of Russians, manifested by an increase in morbidity, disability and mortality,

including from unnatural causes.

Among older people healthy enough. Most people older suffer from various chronic diseases.

A distinctive feature of geriatric patients - a combination of pathological changes in various

organs and systems, excessive medicalization, and the absence of alternative methods of

preservation and rehabilitation of health problems worsen. The media should become active

promoters and distributors of theories, techniques, and best practices for the conservation

potential health and productive aging. Unfortunately, the way of life of many Russians are very

far from ideal, but modern life dictates all Russian citizens need to actively strengthen and

preserve their health, increasing the importance of health and its leading position in the scale

of life values. Many economically developed countries focus on improvement of its citizens. For

example, one of the leading Russian demographers, Anatoly Vishnevsky writes: “Between 1960

- 1990 years of health expenditure per capita increased by five times. And somewhere in France

or Japan - almost forty. The difference, of course, a significant effect too. Our state skimp on

investment in health ... “.

Ministry of Health considers itself as “the Ministry of diseases”, limited to “Ministry of Health

warns,” believes that it is not involved in the cause of the high mortality rate. This is a global

issue state must be addressed comprehensively and take part of the responsibility for the health

and quality of life of the population. Resources are abundant, and one of them preventive

medicine. More and more it is evident that the development of measures to stimulate those

citizens who support the highest standards of efficiency, care about their health and saves

it. For the health system is a category that includes not only medical and biological factors,

but also demographic, psychological, socio-economic, legal, ethical, and others, constantly

interacting with each other.

Summarizing it must be said that it is advisable to legislatively establish a mechanism to

stimulate a healthy lifestyle and to consider the health of the economic category.

Ключевые слова/Tags1: social work; older people; socialization; re-socialization; education; gerontology.