Contemporary Problems of Social Work
INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH QUALITY OF LIFE AND REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES..
Spiritual rehabilitation of young people through communion with the spiritual singing orthodox tradition
Автор/Author: Malygin D. A. Korsakova I. A.
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In the last decade has seen a rapid degradation of the spiritual sphere of human rights,
especially in connection with the development of new technologies. The state of modern
Russian society can be described as painful. The growth of crime, including children, aggression
and anger of youth, erasing moral boundaries and the leveling of distinction between “bad”
and “good”, the proliferation of religious sects become the norms of modern life. Low fertility,
increased abortions, the increase in the number of illegitimate children lead to the destruction
of the Russian nation.
The decline of morals can be seen in advertising and the media, in culture is being
implemented “hedonistic project” carried out under the slogan “get a life”, and hence the alcohol,
drugs and sex, and other “pleasures” of life, which lead to a change of attitudes and spiritual
degradation of the society. Society loses the traditional cultural values and immersed in the
bosom of consumerism, promiscuity, permissiveness. In an interview with the Greek writer Nikos
Zervas raises the issue of conscience in the culture: “people of the Eastern type of Christian
civilization - the Russians and the Greeks ... very similar: if we remain without a conscience,
we lose everything,” the writer said with remorse about the fact that earlier conscience was
“tuning fork” that was tuned soul of the Russian people, but today the main “cultural type” was
the person who consumes shameless culture increasingly insatiable .
Moral degradation is stated in the publications of teachers, psychologists, sociologists,
the writings of philosophers and writers. Offers a variety of rehabilitation projects, there are
discussions about creating a national idea, which would become a landmark for the mass
consciousness. However, this benchmark is already there, he created a little over 2 thousand
years ago, when Russia adopted the Christian faith and entered the path of Orthodoxy.
The basis of traditional Russian culture are moral and spiritual values associated with a
religious tradition. Scientist E. C. Troitsky calls Orthodox values “the most important spiritual
and historical foundations of the life of the Russian nation” [21, S. 20-21]. Values form the core
of the personality, so the loss of values leads to the crisis. Academician D. S. Likhachov defines
values as “spiritual manifestations of culture”, “good customs, beliefs about the good and
the beautiful”, passed down through the generations. Continuity of cultural values scientist
considers them the most important property [10, р. 201].
The role of music in shaping the spiritual and value orientations of the youth is undeniable.
Music of the Orthodox tradition is an effective means of rehabilitation, because it bears the
idea of unity, harmony, perfection. Christian doctrine says that man consists of three elements:
spirit - soul - body. The unity of the three components is testimony to the integrity of the
human microcosm, like the macrocosm of the universe. Music as a part of the universe has
the same structure, combined intonation. “Intonation is the unity of the measures (numbers),
sound energy, meaning,” writes V. Medushevsky [11, p. 216]. Intonation has great strength
and value in human society, it is “the General strategy of life, the life program”. Intonation is a
unique phenomenon in the world. All the layers of the universe (physical, energy-informational,
spiritual) are already in this “elementary particle”, “cell” of the musical body: the measure
(number) reflects its logical component, sound - physical energy is the carrier of the soul, the
sense region of the higher spheres.
Music has ontological rootedness in Genesis. Acting on the body, the soul and the spiritual
dimension of man, musical intonation capable of forming man from childhood. Of particular
importance is the traditional musical culture, which includes a set of national images of the
world, the mentality of the people, its festive rituals and family traditions, ethnic stereotypes
of behavior in the natural environment and society, the artistic values of the people, and ethnic
forms of their existence, preservation, and translation .
The survey laid the hypothesis that spiritual rehabilitation of the youth will be successful if
the process of attaching the individual to the Orthodox spiritual tradition deterministic spiritual
values, encompasses the unity of educational, motivational, performing and communication
activities, based on the values of the Orthodox tradition, such as kindness, humility, diligence,
unity; logic-based movement from establishing personal significant relationship with the
Orthodox tradition through its the understanding, experience, execution spiritual songs to its
full adoption. The music education process, say experts, is to build “given the centuries-old
cultural heritage of Russia, to implement “the link of times”, communication and integrity of
musical art” .
Spirituality is above all the beauty of the inner world of the personality, therefore, appeal
to the music as the source of moral value orientations of a person eliminates detachment,
emptiness. This means inclusion of the entire complex of human potential. Music is able to
involve the person in their space, to open a new art space, to understand it from the inside,
because attainment, “it is always a creation, “it is always a co-creation” [14, p. 7], and it requires
a lot of efforts, overcoming himself, breaking worldview, the stereotypes, all those “ghosts”,
which often become a hindrance to spiritual quest.
CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL WORK VOLUME 1, No. 2, 2015
The appeal to the spiritual humanist paradigm as the basis of russian strategy changes or
updates to a modern society gives the rationale for a new research methodology, based on:
– the recognition of the importance faith as the basis of spirituality;
– identification of major mental dominants Slavic culture: kindness, morality, unity, diligence,
– the need to introduce into the public consciousness thoughts about the uniqueness of
the spiritual experience of Orthodoxy in overcoming the deepest crisis of the modern Russian
– the possibilities of modern music education in the formation of the ideological orientations
of young people.
Identify characteristics of sacred music allows a conceptually new axiological approach to
the formation of moral value orientations of modern youth by introducing her to the Orthodox
choral tradition. Music carries “a mandatory axiological component”, scientists believe, because
it allows us “to open and interpret the values of the past, engaging in spiritual infinity of space”
One of the most effective methods of pedagogical interventions is evolutionary-synergetic
method based on the recognition of the intrinsic value of native Russian tradition, passing it
from generation to generation. “Evolutionary synergy method is one way of preserving and
increasing spiritual heritage, providing the opportunity value of interaction not only with
his contemporaries, but also with the ancestors, with their ethos and morality”, - said A. I.
The youth of today live in an era of global change related to the crisis of Russian society,
which increases the conflict of generations, being traditional values, facing the opposite
opinion and spiritual orientation; an era when everyone is in a situation of choice, requiring
moral choice between good and evil, indifference and compassion, risk and peace of mind. The
system of values in young people is the moral Foundation on which, in fact, built the whole
building law, political culture and public administration, and from which grows the society
conscious and responsible citizens,” says President Vladimir Putin .
The issue of spirituality is investigated in the works: N. A. Berdyaev, in. A. Zenkovsky, I. A.
Ilyin, P. Boevoi, I. M. Ilyicheva, T. I. Petrakova, and other.
The implementation of the comprehensive methodology of formation of spiritual and moral
values includes the following main components:
1. Study the Bible, the divine Liturgy and other Scriptures and rituals. Many spiritual hymns
are written in the canonical liturgical texts. Currently, sacred music presents, on the one hand,
a rich tradition valtolina singing (from spiritual repentance verses, chants, Psalms and finishing
Opera-choral and oratorio tradition, represented, for example, in the works of A. Grechaninov),
on the other hand, the actual Church hymns. Modern composers (choir Directors, singers)
do transcriptions and arrangements of traditional hymns or write works in the tradition of
2. Inclusion in the performing tradition and recreating the original intonations of prayer,
compassion. In the Orthodox Liturgy singing as a universal language of prayer teaches the
correct way of praise through singing man knows the teaching of the Church.
3. The selection of repertoire and study of the best examples of spiritual song tradition,
designed in its higher manifestations to display the spiritual world. Masterpieces of spiritual
traditions are the property of our Russian culture, our national pride and enduring value of
the world of art. Professor A. A. Aronov, exploring the characteristics of Russian spiritual life,
draws attention to the determinants of the formation of native spirituality, among which the
most important is the Russian Holiness . I. A. Ilyin in his writings conducts the idea of the
inextricable link the concept of “Holiness” with a Russian soul: “there is no Holiness without
Russia and there is no Russia without Holiness” .
The selection of repertoire is not only important for professional teams, and Amateur choirs
(such as Academic choir “Radunitsa”), when everyone can join the tradition through the
performance of sacred songs.
4. Changing spiritual makeup of both singers and listeners impossible without creating a
special atmosphere of Holiness. “Atmosphere” etymologically comes from the phrase “sphere of
breathing”, i.e. it’s something that people breathe, and not so much his body as the soul. “The
atmosphere of the temple,” says St. Theophan, which together with all its rites singalana our
entire faith, the atmosphere of this pure, heavenly, divine. Unknown as is the soul embraces
the spirit of the love of God, freshens breath reverent fear of God as the breath of the morning
coolness, then animates the movement of warmth of heart... after Visiting the Church, having
been as it should, we go out brand new, as if refreshed. Other after that there are the thoughts
in my head, the other senses and location in the heart .
Concerts of sacred music held not only in temples but also in secular buildings with good
acoustics. The greatest effect is achieved in those areas that are sanctified by the Russian
Orthodox Church. The presence of icons, table-modern man lost the symbolism of living space,
all Orthodox symbolism creates a special emotional atmosphere, special mental attitude.
The atmosphere was beautifully described M. Chekhov: “Actor, able to appreciate the
atmosphere, looking for her in everyday life. Every landscape, every street, house, room has his
own special atmosphere. Otherwise he is in the library, the hospital, the Cathedral and otherwise
- in a noisy restaurant, hotel, or Museum. He is as sensitive apparatus, perceives the surrounding
atmosphere and listening to it as music. It changes for him the same melody, making it gloomy
and dark, full of hope and joy. The same familiar landscape “sounds” for him otherwise quiet
spring morning or in the storm, and the storm. A lot of new things he learns through this sound,
enriching the soul and awakening in her creative force” .
Such qualities as morality, spirituality cannot be formed outside, because they depend on
the internal aspirations of the individual, his / her willpower. They seem to grow from the
inside, becoming invisible thread that connects man with his existential origins, giving him life
support “here and now”, opening avenues for going beyond individual limits [9, p. 25].
Orthodox spiritual music has enormous potential formation of a harmonious whole
personality. In contrast to classical art, the main problem is the search of the sense of life,
the Orthodox tradition helps a person to live in accordance with that meaning set forth in the
Scriptures. Sacred music reveals to man the beauty and Holiness of life, true happiness on earth.
Through intonation body, the intonation of the words, the energy of the sanctity of a man
transformed. Through internal discipline, prayer focus, he has found true freedom: “Where the
spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty” .
Saving grace is that in the semantic content of spiritual hymns, able to perform a miracle of
hearing. Grace (gr. сharis - gratitude, love) reveals to man himself, because of higher demand,
without which man cannot be considered a person, there is a need for Truth, Goodness, Beauty,
Love, and God.
Throughout Russia open rehabilitation Orthodox centers, continuing the tradition of
“Houses of sobriety”, created in the XIX century on the initiative of John of Kronstadt. In these
rehabilitation centers there are people with pathological (drug, alcohol) dependence and
need healing of body, soul and spirit. The main focus of work in the rehabilitation center is
changing the mindset of patients, restore their spiritual values, rethinking prior life experience,
the acquisition of high spiritual and cultural values. The main reason of illness of these
people - spiritual devastation, the loss of moral compass, no sense of life, “this is payback for
the ideology of consumerism, cult of material prosperity, spirituality, and the loss of authentic
ideals” . The work of the Orthodox rehabilitation centers is underway on several fronts:
social, educational, spiritual and psychological.
CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL WORK VOLUME 1, No. 2, 2015
Inclusion in the study program of spiritual music can significantly improve the effectiveness
of teachers. The study of the texts of spiritual songs contributes to the spiritual education of
patients, and the best examples of sacred music reveal the content of the Orthodox rite, don’t
just hear, but feel the deepest essence of the prayer of verse. Spiritual unity choir contributes
to the formation (or revival) feelings of benevolence, brotherly kindness, empathy. Work in the
choir instills a sense of responsibility, hard work, the habit of systematically to work to achieve
results. The unity of body, soul and spirit is experienced through musical intonation, all being
of the person aspires to goodness, creativity, happiness.
Experience with the national team “Academic choir Radunica” showed the effectiveness of
the methodology of communion with the Orthodox tradition through sacred music. Great value
when working with the choir becomes the creation of an atmosphere of unity and aspiration
consciousness to God. Singing in the temple returns conceived by God the hierarchy: the spirit
subdues the soul, and the soul subdues the body.
Unlike classical music, which is the game (playing musical instruments, imagination playing
fancy), spiritual singing is the detachment of consciousness from all conceivable images and
ideas; in prayerful silence, filled with energy resounding harmony is unity with God. Directed
consciousness inward rather than outward (to the world) distinguishes spiritual song tradition
from the art of classical music. This concentration is an analogy with meditation used in Eastern
culture or modern minimalism. Unlike spells (anti-prayer) man does not seek to subjugate
the whole world. On the contrary, humility, obedience, dispassion distinguish true Orthodox
spirituality from the destructive power of desire, pleasure, voluptuousness.
Great about the true singing (singing of the human heart) wrote I. Ilyin in the book “the
Singing heart”: “Heart sings when it likes; it sings of love, which is streaming live stream from
some mysterious depths and never seemed to end... Then the man speaks true happiness...
Everything else in life is not so important then the sun never sets, then God the beam does
not leave the soul, then the Kingdom of God shall enter into the earthly life and earthly life is
sanctified and transfigured. This means that new life began, and that people became familiar
with the new Genesis...” [8, p. 278].
Musical intonation helps to reveal the meaning of the words contained in the text. And here
is how musical interpretation consistent with the content of spiritual hymns. The word cannot
be separated from the intonation. Two sides - semantic and energy-intonation - are inextricably
linked. Remove the intonation of the words mean to kill him, as it sometimes happens in the socalled
“Orthodox rock music”. Orthodoxy and rock incompatible: syncopated beats, aggressive
shouts, loose motion - all this is incompatible with the content of the prayer text. Moreover,
this contrast evokes a feeling of shock and means blasphemy over the Christian spirit. Spiritual
singing is associated with etymological next “tone” associated with the feeling of effort: the
tone, the tenor, the tone, the litany, the trend pace, titanium, tirade, string, pull . The word
and intonation complement each other. “The highest calling of the word, to open the mind of
God, how accessible it is to a man, that he grew in the knowledge of God. The highest calling of
intonation to Express the spirit of the love of God which permeates the mind of God, to Express
and Orthodoxy of the heart in which dwells the God, the spirit of earnest will, flowing from the
divine love”, believes V. Medushevsky . The specificity of intonation (especially musical
intonation) is that it creates the atmosphere, from which is born the word: “from the abundance
of the heart the mouth speaks” .
You can say: this new era, a new culture puts a new meaning to the old masterpieces, so
they continue to live today. Here I should say that we must not substitute content, and to seek
the path to the disclosure of sublime beauty. “If Beethoven was told that every note of his
Violin Concerto dictated by God, and we put into his music the ideas of the revolution” [13, p.
259-260], is the substitution of values, especially dangerous when under the guise of classics
man presents himself. Of course, in classical music has a spiritual component, but the radical
difference of spiritual singing traditions from music is that it is the area of asceticism (aimed
at transforming the structure of consciousness) in contrast to art, built on the ideal of the
Traditional Znamenny chant had a sacred beginning, turned into oneself. Melody of Znamenny
chant differed endless movement around a single melodic center, which resulted in a feeling
of loss of time, detachment from all earthly things and meant turning to God with prayer, while
later singing tradition (of polyphonic singing with the expanded form, clear rhythm) is based
on an aesthetic attitude to the world, focused on the expression of human feelings and not
intended for the connection of the soul with God, but to fulfill before by the audience.
The revival and renewal of the Russian state is impossible without a guide formation of
spiritual and moral foundations of Russian national identity.
Youth is the main driving force of Russian society. “How we educate young people, depends,
whether Russia will be able to save and enrich itself,” believes President Vladimir Putin . From
the younger generation depends the future of our country and of all mankind, and therefore, the
problem of formation of the spiritual and values of young people can be regarded as a universal
Church singing as a mighty tree has grown from a grain of prayer. Born in the time of
Abraham, it absorbed many currents (guttural singing Bedouin, Greek seven-step modes, Slavic
melodies and songs of the troubadours, Gregorian chant and organ intonation, Russian long
songs). From these seeds grew a mighty tree of Orthodox spiritual tradition and continues to
evolve in performing activities of many professional and amateur choirs.
Today it is clear that a society that is devoid of spiritual Foundation, cannot build nor efficient
economy, a healthy political relations nor fair in the social sphere. Modern Russian society is
in deep, not always unconscious contradiction between laid down centuries-old spiritual and
moral values and surface, artificially inoculated European values, which have a fundamentally
different nature, sometimes not shared with the Russian mentality has emerged on the basis of
religion. Therefore, the preservation of Russian identity (cultural, national and religious), based
on the traditional values of Russian Orthodoxy, today is one of the main tasks of the Russian
The most important function of modern education is “the reproduction of spirituality”, the
development of the human capacity for self-realization in the space of culture on the basis of
the choice of values, meanings, philosophical positions .
In conclusion, speaking about working with a choir, performing sacred music, it is necessary
to highlight features of the approach to the development of this tradition.
First, spiritual hymns written in the Liturgical text, and their main purpose is the fulfillment
of the Service. The word in the spiritual music of paramount importance, and the task of music
to serve the disclosure of meaning inherent in the text, to convey to the listener the word
and strengthen its impact. The music here is very strong tool, a sort of catalyst that helps
to perceive the deeper meaning of religious verse. The Holy fathers taught that “when the
word is combined with sound - it’s faster and deeper concerns of the human soul”. Thanks to
the synthesis of words and music, the text gets emotional and spiritual strength, possessing
tremendous impact on people’s souls.
Secondly, the notation spiritual songs very different from the traditional classic and does
not reflect all the features of performance. One of the main distinctive spiritual poetic text is
its not- rhyming free building rhythm of the verse. It is expressed in constant change size, and
often the music building go beyond a particular size. A vivid example is analyzed in this paper,
essay A. T. Grechaninov “To thee, o Holy virgin...”. Another feature of the spiritually-choral
works is private use of recitative technology letters, which are widely used in Church music.
Finally, when choosing interpretations of spiritual writings should not forget that the
overwhelming majority of these works lies the prayer text. And prayer is the means of
CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL WORK VOLUME 1, No. 2, 2015
communication with God. It is therefore very important in the performance of such works not
to lose the prayer spiritual condition. Should be excluded when overly sensual state, all kinds
of emotional “overlap”.
Sacred music has great importance for the spiritual culture of man. She raises and ennobles
the human soul and finds a warm response in the hearts of people.