Contemporary Problems of Social Work


The internal potential of national art creativity that forms moral bases of a modern society

Автор/Author: Kalinina Е.А., Anufrieva N.I.

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Список литературы/References:

References in English:

1. Anufrieva, N.I. The national art culture in is musical-educational space of high school: the

manual / N.I.Anufriev. - М, 2013. - 390 p.

2. The Anthology of pedagogical thought of Russia XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries - М:

Pedagogics, 1987.560 p.

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4. Bahrushin, J.A. The history of Russian ballet: the manual / J.A.Bahrushin. - The 3-d ed. - М,

1997. - 287 p.

5. Borev, J.B. Aesthetics: the textbook for high schools / J.B.Borev. - М: High School, 2011.-

511 p.

6. Vygotsky, L.S. The art of Psychology / L.S. Vygotsky; introduc. of A.N.Leontev; a comment. of

L.S.Vygotsky, V.I. Ivanov; general edition of V.V. Ivanov - The 3-d ed. - М: Art, 1986. -573 p.

7. Kagan, M.S. Culture as an object of philosophical research / M.S.Kagan//The role of spiritual

culture in the development of the person. - L, 1979.-160 p.

8. Kagan, M. With. Human activity (The experience of the system analysis) / M.S.Kagan. - М,

1974 p.

9. Leontev, A.N. Activity. Consciousness. The person / A.N.Leontev. - М: Politizdat, 1975. - 304


10. Lihachev, D.S. Russian culture / D.S.Lihachev - М: Art, 2000. - 440 p.

11. Lotman, J.M. About the semiotics mechanism of culture / J.M.Lotman, B.A.Uspensky//Tartu,

1971. - Iss. 284. - pp.144-166.

12. Medushevsky, B.B. About laws and means of art influence of music / V.V.Medushevsky. - М:

Music, 1976. - 254 p.

13. National culture in modern conditions: the manual / Ministry of Culture of the RF, Russian

institute of cultural sciece; responsible editor. N.G.Mihajlova. - М, 2000. - 219 p.

14. National holidays and family traditions in Russia /N.G.Gutkin. - N.Novgorod, 1994.-24 p.

15. Nekrasova, M.A. The national art as a part of culture. Theory and practice / M.A.Nekrasov. - М,

1983.-343 p.

16. The Pedagogical heritage: V.G.Belinsky, A.I.Herzen, N.G.Chernyshevsky, N.A.Dobrolyubov /

A.F.Smirnov. - М: Pedagogics, 1988.-384 p.

17. Rytov, D.A. The traditions of the national culture / D.P.Rytov. - М: Vlados, 2001. - 178 p.

18. Shcherbakova A.I. The philosophy of music and music education: part II: the manual for high

schools / A.I.ShCherbakova. М, 2008.

19. Maloletko A. N. The theoretical basis for the assessment of the status and management of

state educational institutions of higher professional education: Monograph. M: GOUVPO “

RSUTSS “, 2008.

References in Roman script:

1. Anufrieva, N.I. Narodnaja hudozhestvennaja kul’tura v muzykal’no-obrazovatel’nom

prostranstve vuza: uchebnoe posobie / N.I. Anufrieva. - M., 2013. - 390 s.

2. Antologija pedagogicheskoj mysli Rossii XIX - nachala XX vv. - M.: Pedagogika, 1987.- 560 s.

3. Arnol’dov, A.I. Duhovnyj mir sovremennogo cheloveka/ A.I. Arnol’dov. - M.: MGUKI, 2011. -

163 s.

4. Bahrushin Ju.A. Istorija russkogo baleta: ucheb. posobie / Ju.A. Bahrushin.- Izd. 3-e. - M.,

1997. - 287 s.

5. Borev, Ju.B. Jestetika: uchebnik dlja vuzov / Ju.B. Borev.- M.: Vyssh. shkola, 2011.- 511 s.

6. Vygotskij, L.S. Psihologija iskusstva / L.S. Vygotskij; predisl. A.N. Leont’eva; komment. L.S.

Vygotskogo, V.I. Ivanova; obshh. red. V.V. Ivanova- 3-e izd. - M.: Iskusstvo, 1986.- 573 s.

7. Kagan, M.S. Kul’tura kak ob#ekt filosofskogo issledovanija / M.S. Kagan // Rol’ duhovnoj

kul’tury v razvitii lichnosti. - L., 1979.-160 s.

8. Kagan, M.S. Chelovecheskaja dejatel’nost’ (Opyt sistemnogo analiza) / M.S. Kagan. - M., 1974.


9. Leont’ev, A.N. Dejatel’nost’. Soznanie. Lichnost’ / A.N. Leont’ev. - M.: Politizdat, 1975. - 304


10. Lihachev, D. S. Russkaja kul’tura / D.S. Lihachev - M.: Iskusstvo, 2000. - 440 s.

11. Lotman, Ju.M. O semioticheskom mehanizme kul’tury / Ju.M. Lotman, B.A. Uspenskij //

Uchen. zap. Tart. gos. un-ta.- Tartu, 1971. - Vyp. 284.- S.144-166.

12. Medushevskij, V.V. O zakonomernostjah i sredstvah hudozhestvennogo vozdejstvija muzyki /

V.V. Medushevskij.- M.: Muzyka, 1976. - 254 s.

13. Narodnaja kul’tura v sovremennyh uslovijah: ucheb. posobie / M-vo kul’tury RF, Ros. in-t

kul’turologii; otv. red. N.G. Mihajlova.- M., 2000. – 219 s.

14. Narodnye prazdniki i semejnye tradicii v Rossii / sost. N.G. Gutkin. - N. Novgorod, 1994. -24


15. Nekrasova, M. A. Narodnoe iskusstvo kak chast’ kul’tury. Teorija i praktika / M.A. Nekrasova. -

M., 1983. -343 s.

16. Pedagogicheskoe nasledie: V.G. Belinskij, A.I. Gercen, N.G. Chernyshevskij, N.A. Dobroljubov

/ Sost. A.F. Smirnov.- M.: Pedagogika, 1988.- 384 s.

17. Rytov, D.A. Tradicii narodnoj kul’tury / D.P. Rytov.- M.: Vlados, 2001. - 178 s.

18. Shherbakova A.I. Filosofija muzyki i muzykal’nogo obrazovanija: ch. II: uchebnoe posobie

dlja vuzov / A.I. Shherbakova. M., 2008.

19. Maloletko A.N. Teoreticheskie osnovy ocenki sostojanija obespechenija i obsluzhivanija

gosudarstvennyh obrazovatel’nyh uchrezhdenij vysshego professional’nogo obrazovanija:

Monografija. M.: FGOUVPO «RGUTiS», 2008.

Содержание статьи/Article:

During the various historical periods the art activity acting as a tool of man’s mastering of

forms of natural and social space, took roots in various works of creativity. The natural and

at the same time unique processes occurring in the cultural policy of a society of the various

states, were differently modified and have caused changes of mentality, outlook of the man, his

attitude, and, hence, transformation practically in all kinds of art-creative activity of people.

The research of bases and regularity of studying of the cultural phenomena in a society,

promoting strengthening not only the unity of national cultures, but societies as a whole,

has the major research and art-practical senses. Therefore, from methodological positions

specification of rather a prominent aspect of the given problem is obviously necessary: what

provides the display of unique integrated characters of works of national art creativity while

synthesizing universal art-creative experience of the previous generations and its realisation

in man’s experience? Where are internal potentialities of artistic images of the national culture

hidden? How is the process of penetration of high humanistic, highly moral senses of works of

national creativity into deep essence of the modern man carried out in practice?

The culture possessing ability to integrate its values in all fullness of its social connetctions,

establishes the most effective communication facilities for realisation of real humanistic

principles, for concretizing man’s understanding of values of art creative activity as a specific

form of person’s learning of these values. The problem of penetration into the individualised

world of an art-creative activity of the man has been investigated by Ancient Greek philosophers.

According to A.I.Shcherbakova, for example, an antique civilisation had been cultivating the

sprouts for more than 1200 «which gave powerful shoots in all spheres of spiritual life of the

mankind. Having absorbed the cultural-historical experience of the predecessors having twothousand

history by the time of formation and blossoming of Hellenic culture, antique Greece

has united in the culture the achievements of Assiro-Babylon, Egyptian, Phoenician, Cretan-

Minoan, Mycenaean and other cultures of the ancient world, having become the sample of lifegiving

essence of synthesis as a symbol of creation for many generations »[18, p.55].

On M.S.Kagana’s belief, the culture, acts as such a social phenomenon, «which embraces

everything that the subject creates, developing the world of objects» [7, p. 5]. However

A.I.Arnold asserts that the culture is threatened with danger of «spiritual damage, limitation,

dependence on social realities and a political landscape... The leitmotif of the modern processes

of a cultural life moves nowadays on profound disclosing of a human individuality. Attention

to the particular, concrete man, its self-estimations, «opennesses to the world» is especially

important for culture [3, p. 45].

U.M.Lotman considered culture as the memory of the people which «is always connected

with history and always means a continuity of moral, intellectual, spiritual human life, a society

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and the mankind. And consequently, when we speak about our modern culture, we, maybe

subconsciously speak about a huge way this culture has passed. This way totals a millenium,

steps over borders of historical epochs, national cultures and immerses us in one culture – the

culture of the mankind» [11, p. 8].

Art creativity of peoples, having arisen at a certain stage of development of the mankind,

has become an indicator of cultural variety of the world and has been moved forward in a row

of the phenomena inherent in society. Dynamics of an art ethnocultural process, continuity of

stable folklore tradition, and also the phenomena born by the modern validity, supplement this

tradition and represent a certain universality of this concept. In the process and evolution of

cultural-historical practice of a person his aesthetic ideals, norms and traditions were changed.

One of traditional questions in the history of development and evolution of various kinds of

creative activity of people is the classification of these kinds which, as a matter of fact, is the

basis for definition of art form.

J.B.Borev, reflecting on art development of the mankind, distinguishes two “counter”

processes: the first is from syncretism to formation of particular art forms (dance, music,

singing, theatre, literature were separated from undifferentiated, conjoint art thinking in the

ancient time), the second - from particular kinds of art - to their synthesis. In this sense the

creative capacity of art is hidden not in any special advantages of the given kind of creativity,

universal generality of practical art forms, and, first of all, in its ability to accumulate society

art-historical experience by its specific means [5, с.122]. Obviously, the reason of art division

on various kinds was the variety of kinds of man’s art-creative practice based on an aesthetic

variety of his life. Humanistic, moral pathos of the content of works was shown in graphicexpressive

features of a genre, its thematic, style variety opening the uniqueness of a picture

of the world as it is. At the same time the real vital basis of these images was simultaneously

focused on the essential human importance and looked to the future.

Occurrence of forms, values of mass culture leads to essentially new elements of perception of

the cultural phenomena, opposition to the true values of national art creativity. It is necessary

for the modern man to percieve, “enter” the work adequately: «Just because in art models of

the person the individual and the general are consolidated together, so the man appears as an

owner of some generality as a social type, - writes M.S.Kagan, - art becomes... a natural typology

of human characters, social statuses, personal structures, spiritual microcosm» [8, p.268].

In the course of the analysis of the context of the cultural-historical experience and the

logic of its personal refractions in works of national creativity, the world of values and senses, it

is possible to draw a conclusion that outside of the existing norms and traditional images the

personal art reality of national culture comes to light. Hence, the moral basis, the essence of an

artistic image can be considered through a personal-unique experience and judgement of works

of creativity, and a depth of spiritual contact becomes an adequate interpretation of its content,

image by the spectator, the listener, the reader.

Thus, as a productive model of problem realisation for forming the individual moral basis of

the modern man in the course of learning the works of national art creativity, the transition to a

higher level of mechanisms interaction of the national tradition and ability of the man to cover all

spectrum of works of this or that kind of folk art may be defined. The given model can be presented

with three major factors: the level of man’s motivation-neded sphere to the given art form, the

level of creative abilities, the level of sense-valued sphere perception of the given art form.

The moral pathos of works of folk art is inseparably linked with man’s joining to the social

phenomena as an idea of a higher norm of creative perfection and the ways of its achievement

is peculiar to each historical epoch. According to L.S. Vygotsky, this process of joining defines

a direction of overcoming various vital collisions by a man: «The action of art when it makes

catharsis and involves purifying fire in this process the most intimate, most vital shocks of a

personal soul are a social action » [6, p.366].

Multifunctional, by its nature, the national art creativity has always possessed special

influence on formation of moral and spiritual qualities of a man, acting, on the one hand, as

means of learning the world by a man, and on the other - means of his education.

Taking into a consideration socially-aesthetic inquiries of the modern society, cultural

establishments (a philharmonic, houses of creativity, professional educational institutions

of culture and art, etc.) reconstruct and intensify mobilisation of moral potentialities of the

cultural-developing environment today. The basic structural components of this environment

reflect specific forms of this or that kind of art-creative activity. Thus it is extremely important

to underline that the profile art-creative environment under the influence of the modern

informative field not only gets new lines, is successfully improved, modernised, but also actively

reforms its informative, moral “field”.

For the purpose of all-round penetration of the modern man into the world of art values of

folk art own analytical tools of evident demonstration of changing consumers’ thinking of their

“production” – audience, were radically reconsidered by these establishments, organisations. This

concept corresponds with N.I.Anufrieva’s statement that the system of the higher vocational

training should focus a graduate of a high school of culture and art «on designing a new social

cultural space, preservation of traditional bases and integrity of native culture» [1, p.141].

The authors of the given research notice that by the end of the XX-th and the beginning of

the XXI-st century in the mentioned establishments and cultural organisations there were real

conditions for creation of scientifically founded principles, forms and methods which allow

the modern man to act in the course of comprehention of works of national art creativity to

play a role of a researcher and a sort of expert of the result of his own perception, to expand

his personal art-aesthetic experience considerably, to develop individual system of values, to

understand the nature of this kind of creativity, its social and moral essence.

So, for example, the width of generalisation of the key concepts “Russian earth”, “native

land”, “mother-earth” has been put in the basis of pedagogical traditions of education of

rising generation. Artistic images of the epic epos reflected the pathos of the state and ethnic

unification, formed bases of outlook and moral consciousness. At the heart of the content

of «Tales of Bygone Years» themes of struggle of good and evil are put. Thus the good was

identified with aspiration to consolidation of Fatherland prosperity. The images of Good were

great Russian princes: Yaroslav the Wise, Vladimir Monomah, Vladimir Svjatoslavich, Mstislav

the Great, etc. Education in Ancient Russia put philosophy, rhetoric, poetry, musical art in one

number, recognising thus paramount value of moral problems.

At the end of XIX - beginning of the XX-th century in Russia lifting of socially-pedagogical

movement is noted. The search of ways and forms of national education of rising generation

was a characteristic of the pedagogical public of the beginning of the XX-th century: «Our

youth is not brought up in Russian national ideals, in the spirit of belief, fidelity to a throne

and Fatherland, in respect of native history, native olden times; as a result is a natural and

inevitable consequence - formation of the whole generations who did not like native, national

ideas» [2, p. 476].

The methodological substantiation of various approaches and methods to the decision of the

declared problem assumes a choice of the technological means corresponding to the selected

orientation (universal, constructive, complete-personal), and also vectors of development of

the individual. Touching the problem it is necessary to notice that the development of the

individual should be directed on the formation of “a well functioning person» (K.Rogers), the

search and finding the vital sense by the person (V.Frankl), self-actualisation of the person

(A.Maslow). The complete-personal method assumes the consideration of the person as «a

microcosm» (P.A.Florensky), in aspect of identity of the person and the Nature (N.A.Berdjaev).

The authors of the research defined the purpose as revealing of internal national art creativity

potentialities in the course of moral basis formation of the modern man, consider specificity of

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joining the man to the values of national art creativity can be opened on the basis of complete

development of consciousness of the man, its personal sphere, connected directly with the

world outlook side of this sphere.

The national art culture serves in real process of formation of the individual of the modern man

as means of education of its aesthetic requirements, moral principles and belief, establishing

communications with the world which he comprehends in the course of perception, and the

main thing, estimates as the world of the activity and his participation in this activity: «The

consciousness in its spontaneity is a picture of the world has been opening to the subject where

he is also included, his actions and condition» [9, p. 112].

Generalisation of functions of works of national art creativity gives the grounds for deducing

in a context of moral influence on the individual of the modern man, whose purpose and sense

finds concreteness at the formation of its vital principles , outlook, and, the main thing, the

creative individuality.

While revealing moral functions of works of national creativity, it is necessary to notice

that they as a fundamental principle of an art-creative activity of the man in the unity of its

syncretic elements, possess ability to synthesise primary expressive means which helped the

man to separate himself from nature, to realise in practice his aesthetic requirements. So,

for example, in this role dance acted and continues to represent itself as a sort of organised

beginning of these requirements, that is the syntactic characteristic of primitive culture.

Therefore cognitive “secrets” of a choreography consist in socially specified mechanisms of

transfer of its sensual-aesthetic experience in a rhithmically organised movement. The plastic

artistic images thus created by the man possessed an ability to reveal, realise, generalise not

only the certain vital phenomena, collisions, but the relation of people to them as they are.

Thus, as a result there was logically and rhithmically organised, sensually realised plasticity of

a human body which possesses ability to stimulate creative potentialities of each particularly

taken man for including it in various forms of art creativity.

Moral function of works of national creativity has the new knowledge in itself based on a variety

of time norms and relations between these norms, acting as the major means of comprehension

of depth of the put senses. Acting as the form of art consciousness, connecting and providing

the storage of cultural values in live memory of people, images of a national song, dance, an

instrumental tune fix their cognitive, emotionally-sensual results in independent judgement

in concrete means of art expressiveness, create optimum possibilities for formation of ethical

standards, the outlook of the man, art-aesthetic taste and its creative abilities on the whole.

Being an integrated kind of activity, the national tradition unites manufacture and

consumption processes of subjects of national art creativity by the modern man and, developing

according to its specific laws, generates it. According to scientists-researchers of the national

culture, today the traditional forms of art creativity making a basis of folklore, act not only as

a way (mechanism) of its functioning, reproduction, but also as a communication channel to

transfer cultural experience, skills, abilities in space and time directly from man to man, from

generation to generation in the course of joint activity, in the course of a dialogue.

However consequences of active migratory processes in modern cultural space, contributed to

the unification of folklore tradition in its classical measurement. Scientists mark modifications

not only continuity of natural mechanisms of functioning of folklore, but also its mutual

enrichment in the course of a natural cultural exchange. Derivation of various kinds and forms

of ethnic regional tradition occurs owing to reduction of rural population, domination of mass

culture in a modern society. Nevertheless, thanks to «advocates of traditions», a tendency of

activization of dealing with the traditional folklore, shown in last decades, give the chance to

cover almost all spheres of spiritual culture in authentic or secondary forms.

Researchers of national art culture notice that at the end of ХХ - beginning of the XXI-st

century positive tendencies of reproduction of authentic folklore tradition in the conditions

of “the not authentic” common and cultural environment considerably became more active at

the expense of formation of creative collectives, vocational training of participants of these

collectives by leading experts-specialists in folklore, and also true media folk traditions. So it

is necessary to add that 2014 was «The Year of culture in Russia». In a number of subjects of

Russia there were regional stages of the All-Russia festival of national art creativity through

which inter-regional, All-Russia cultural projects were realised. The final stage of festival of

national art creativity conducted on TV channel “Culture” has visually shown stability of folklore

traditions and their highly moral basis which components were: true patriotism, national dignity,

comprehension of own identity with the people, and also the best features of ethnos –diligence,

kindness, mercy, love, courage, conscience, etc.

The phenomenon of national art culture allows to implant in consciousness of rising

generation the concepts which are spiritual constants of the nation: the Native land, the

family, the language, the nature, the history and the culture of the people, patriotism.

Therefore, considering problems of modern mans’ moral formation on values of the national

art culture, it is necessary to notice that in the given content should be reflected not only

social, historical, spiritually-practical experience of the development of the world by many

generations in various kinds and forms of the art-creative activity, but also the process

of studying cultural-historical heritage of the Russian people should be ordered in an

appropriate way. According to D.S. Lihachev, «in Russian life by all means something remains

from old and even from improbably old, and on the other hand, there is a passion developing

this old and seeking new» [10, p. 234]. It means that immersing of young generation in layers

of a heritage of the native traditional culture beneficially influences the man according to

dynamically functioning of various forms of human life in its art-creative refraction. The

dialogue with the art-historical past allows young generation to derive spiritual strength for

the intellectual growth and development. One of such sources is the inexhaustible potential

of almost all kinds of the national art creativity: dance, song, musical-instrument tradition,

oral national creativity, arts and crafts, etc.

The studied material on the declared theme of research at the first stage has shown that

education of requirement of knowledge of modern youth of a heritage of traditional culture

represents a difficult many-sided, multilevel, long-term process. Addressing to works of the

national culture, students get the strong basis for valuable, moral orientation in a modern social

cultural environment where “the production” of mass culture actively functions promoting the

development of certain stereotypes of thinking and behaviour.

So, for example, a survey about a regularity of acquaintance to various works of the national

art culture of 1-3 year students of high schools of culture and art of various directions of

preparation has shown that only 29 % of 1 year students and 32 % of third-year students

are visitors of museums of national creativity; 31 % of first-year students and 44 % of thirdyear

students are ready to listen to performances of singers in a genre of a national song

with pleasure. 34 % of first-year students and 47 % of third-year students visit concerts of

national choreographic collectives, 41 % of first-year students and 54 % of third-year students

regularly look the television programs thematically devoted to various genres of the national

art creativity, including participation of outstanding masters of last decades. The majority

of interviewed students (91 % of first-year students and 89 % of third-year students) cannot

distinguish original samples of traditional culture from fakes of modern singers of a national

song, national dances in a manner of «ethnographism», “ A La Russe”

At a following stage of work the participants who showed interest to national dance, a

national song were interviewed . Their heightened interest became a result of the presence of

different songs and dancing tradition (singing in a family, additional lessons at extra classes of

art creativity, national collectives, etc.) in their life since their childhood, from a school bench.

Students told with pleasure about the participation in concert programs, the performances

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spent in a kindergarten, school, about visiting concerts, musical performances together with

their parents.

The youth interview concerning attractiveness of national dance has revealed those lines of

genre of the national dance which remained in time and had powerful emotionally-aesthetic

influence: incendiary, cheerful, joyful character is inherent in national dances, dancers are

dressed in remarkable suits, movements of dancers are very plastic, melodies are recognised

since the childhood etc.

At the second investigation phase the analysis of materials on education problems of students’

ability to observe, compare, analyze, model, classify and generalise the received knowledge of

the art-shaped world of national culture has been undertaken and it creates a possibility for

each modern person to express his valued-semantic picture of this world as to a specific reality.

The students of high school have been acting with this purpose simultaneously as readers,

spectators, listeners for three years. In the studied field there were problems of individual and

collective creativity, socially-psychological mutual relations, dialectics of the creative and

technological background in the course of the art creativity, and also the problems having

applied value: psychology of creative activity, efficiency of various channels of advertising,

information and communication streams, etc. According to historically-cultural sources

on stages of formation of these traditions, it is possible to reveal their role in systems of

communication of people, their aspiration to social unity in a national song, in national dance

and other forms of collective art activity.

The research on learning of modern listeners, spectators - students of works of various kinds

and genres of the national creativity has been based on their full “immersing” in the world of

values of folk art, and, the main thing, formation of high level of art requirements for perception

of these values. This part of research was carried out by visiting concerts of creative collectives

(professional, amateur); participations of recipients in concerts, celebratory show programs,

competitions, festivals, etc., in work of creative studios, the creative unions, associations,

collectives; in carrying out of master classes of the leading teachers, well-known performers,

national masters; in the mass entertaining programs, traditional holidays; in creative, charity

projects, etc. Participation of recipients in the listed actions has allowed to distinguish three

levels of spectators-listeners (high, middle, low), which analysis and detailed characteristic will

be lightened in the subsequent publications.

Ключевые слова/Tags1: culture, the modern society, creativity, national art culture, national art creativity, the individual, moral.