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Innovation and education cluster as the basis for the formation and development of the middle class of the north-caucasian federal district

Автор/Author: Yatsur A.V

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Список литературы/References:

1. Bondareva K. P., Regina I. N., Yatsur A.V. Analysis of socio-economic development of territories from the point of view of policy implementation in the field of formation and development of the middle class. // KANT.Economics & management: scientific cited peerreviewed journal. 2014. – № 1(3). – pp. 25-28.


2. Volodin A. N., Rud N. Y., Nosoleva L. Century. To the problem of providing economic, financial and technological security of Russia in the conditions of globalization. // The journal “Management of economic systems: electronic scientific journal” 2013, No. 12.


3. Gerasimov, I. Education as a factor of integration in multicultural space // southern Federal district: the dynamics of interethnic relations in the changing ethno-political space: Materials of scientific-practical conference. – Rostov n/A. – Pyatigorsk: Publishing house of the Academy, 2009. – pp. 50-57.


4. Zborowski, E., shuklina E. A. “Education as a resource of information society” // Scientific and political journal of the SOCIS, 2005. No. 7. – pp. 107-113.


5. Modern sociologists of education: textbook / Series “Alma Mater”. – Rostov/D: Phoenix, 2005. – 320 p.


6. Yatsur A.V. Barriers to the growth of the middle class as a threat to the economic security of the Stavropol region//Bulletin of the Stavropol state University: academic journal, 2012. – № 80 (3). – pp. 26-31.


7. Yatsur A.V. Methodology of identification of the middle class as a mechanism of economic security/ Management/ economic systems: an electronic journal, 2012. No. 7(43): URL:http://www.uecs.EN


8. Yatsur A.V. Features of the state policy in the field of formation and development of the middle class in the context of ensuring economic security of the Russian Federation.// Innovation economy: new tasks and challenges, the I international scientific and practical use. proc. (15.10.2012; Yoshkar-Ola (Russia)/Volga research center. – Yoshkar-Ola: A Colloquium, 2012. – pp. 126-131.


9. Maloletko A. N., Kaurova O. V. Karmanova T. E., Kryukova E. M. Mechanism of implementation of cluster innovation policy in the regions of the Russian Federation.//Proceedings of the Russian state social University. 2014. No. 3 (125). pp. 42-45.


10. Kryukova E. M. Makeev, D. R. the Role of experts in the assessment and certification of qualifications of personnel in the sphere of service.//Bulletin of the Association of Universities of tourism and service. – 2013. – No. 1. pp. 9-14.


11. Kryukova, E. M., D. R. Makeev Personnel certification as a tool to improve the quality of services of the companies of sphere of service.//National interests: priorities and safety. 2012. No. 14. pp. 29-34.

Содержание статьи/Article:

Globalization as the main trend of the development of the modern world, the more fully is the growing contradictions between the rate and direction of the processes of integration of economic, financial, informational and educational relations, as well as certain protective reaction of cultures, with a tendency towards localization.


Political strategies for handling such situations, established in the world, scientists classified into three alternatives: the complete destruction manifested in various forms: from destruction to assimilation; parallelism, which is manifested in a relatively independent coexistence and pluralism, the basis of which is the equality, diversity, interdependence, vzaimosohranenii, interchange. It is the essence of pluralism goes directly to the processes of globalization through the inclusion of mechanisms of social and cultural models of "natural" integration.


Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the particular conditions of the proposed model in the multicultural space of the Plurinational state Association. Because, first of cultural diversity can act as a positive resource for the development of personality and society; secondly, the process of socialization for members of any ethnic group occurs in the interaction with the dominant culture "most", and any individual as a subject of dual identity: personal, limited by the characteristics of the ethnic group, and citizenship facing cultural framework nationality; thirdly, the history of multicultural societies suggests that any cultural compromises, which is the basis of stability, are born as a result of conflict situations. Thus, the most General principle of socio-cultural integration might look as follows: "it is impossible to eliminate differences, but you need to look for similarities".


Such conditions relate and education systems implemented in multicultural regions. In this case we are talking about what they offer design and build cultural and educational space pluralistic integration on the basis of specially organized, social, cultural, and ethnic identification. Multicultural regarding value basis and essence, ethnic pedagogical, at the level of socio-cultural mechanisms, the organization of the pedagogical process acts as a system of education that can serve as a kind of key to the solution of many problems: inter-ethnic relations, socio-economic, spiritual, political, etc.


The processes of globalization dictate such personal development, which is based on a real understanding of the continuity of their social, ethnic, linguistic, territorial and cultural beginnings. Thus a measure of the degree of harmony of this relationship in the education system may be its ability to combine rational thinking, the freedom of the individual and the reinterpretation of culture. These personal qualities are characteristic of the "new" middle class emerging in the system of globalization and integration of various spheres of public life. Because the middle class is a factor in ensuring stability of the social system, its role is essential in the system, both Russia and the North Caucasus Federal district.


The formation of the North Caucasus Federal district is a positive step in the stabilization of the situation in the North Caucasus, which will allow the Federal center is more concentrated and targeted to influence the decision accumulated in the regions and the regions problems of various nature.  However, it is necessary to find the mechanism that would allow to maximize the efforts of the state authorities, both in the regions and the country as a whole. So in July 2010 was prepared a comprehensive strategy for socio-economic development of the North Caucasus Federal district, which identified priority areas of complex impact on the problems caused by globalization and integration into a single social space. The concept involves a number of areas (clusters), which allows the coordination of the following areas of the region: energy, tourism and recreation, agriculture and innovation and education.


So this work is devoted to consideration of the role of innovation and education cluster in the system of the formation and development of the middle class.


To analyze the distribution of the middle class in the Stavropol territory in the framework of the model of "one-dimensional" stratification according to the criterion "level of education" we have taken the methods of its identification with the perspective of its stabilizing role in the system of economic security. [7]


The middle class is defined as the set of households with a high level:


1. material and resource provision, determined by the value of per capita income (the lower bound is equal to the average per capita income, the top - 7 cost of living); the availability of real estate (houses, apartments); the presence of movable property (5 durable goods: small kitchen appliances, musical center, DVD, computer, car); quality of life, defined from the point of view of expenditure on food, not exceeding 9.4% of income and the expenditure paid services, constituting not less than 36.9% of the income;


2. intangible is resources, due in part to the availability of complete higher education;


3. assessment of social well-being and future security, examining the level of identity and its causes, worldviews, values and rational action [middle class], due to the absence of paternalistic expectations, the presence of permanent leadership and synergy generations.


In this study we will consider the peculiarities of the formation of the middle class from the point of view of such a criterion as "level of education". However, more important for understanding the socio-cultural identity of the middle class is the quality of education. The quality of education, as well as the fact of its receipt, is determined by the education of the parents. Middle classes are rapidly increasing their quality of its education, and education of children, as demonstrated by their activity in the use of paid educational services, which is in the kernel of the middle classes two to three times higher than the average for the sample level. Representatives kernel pay for the education of their family members at universities, courses, Tutors, indicating the presence of such a criterion as the synergistic effect of generations. Representatives of polyedra also quite active. However, respondents from households of lower strata (the periphery and below), clearly demonstrate the inability to pay fees (of themselves and their children).


The quality of education is determined by the place of training. Regional and residential differentiation of the existing system of education has caused concern in Russia. In fact, regional and residential differentiation creates a kind of social class groups, which are characterized by the inheritance of status traits, the most important of which is access to educational services.


However, the middle classes are primarily a phenomenon of major towns, cities. The middle class is played mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Social layers below the middle classes, those who graduated from high school, mainly in provincial towns and rural areas, and rural school is a social mechanism for the reproduction of one of low status of the population. Therefore, educational resources this part of the population for upward social mobility is low.


Innovation and education cluster will bring provincial and rural new educational level, and will allow through the existence of the integrated educational system to make the middle class predominantly a phenomenon not only Metropolitan cities, but also the phenomenon of the North Caucasus Federal district.


The above circumstances have predetermined and quality characteristics of education representatives of the "middle". Thus, the middle classes have high-quality features (synergistic effect generations, permanent leadership and lack of paternalistic expectations), that allows to speak about them as socio-cultural phenomenon, able to take the country on the path of innovative development.


The most important feature of the middle classes is the high level of potential connectivity, which is based on a high level of education, and on the peculiarities of professional activity. These studies of the Institute of sociology RAS make and evaluate the inclusion of the generalized middle class in the system of social communication, in particular English language proficiency and usage of the Internet. The communicativeness of the population along with the English language is defined and involvement in global information systems and use them for personal communications.


So, the core of the middle classes presents a highly educated population, formed in families with well-educated parents, who live primarily in the cities, actively involved in social communication and with modern information technology tools.


The findings are supported by the data obtained from analysis of the distribution of the middle class in the Stavropol territory in the framework of the model of "one-dimensional" stratification, which was carried out on the basis of the statistical reports of the Territorial body of Federal state statistics service of the Stavropol region (2011 - 2014).


Based on the fact that the middle class should have completed higher professional education, this criterion


considered from the point of view of owning them [higher education] employed in the economy of the Stavropol territory.


Based on the distribution data of the number of employed in the economy of the Stavropol territory it was found that the number of employees with higher professional education, for 2011-2014 increased by 5.4%, but their share is negligible (30,1%).


Data tables pokazyvaet that in the economy of the Stavropol territory dominated by the share of employed persons with secondary vocational and secondary General education.


Table 1 - distribution of the number of employed in the economy of the Stavropol territory by educational level (in %)[1]*




2011  year


2012 year


2013 year


2014 year


1


2


3


4


5


6


in that number are educated


Just


100


100


100


100


Higher professional education


24,7


25,3


25,5


30,1


Postgraduate


1,3


0,1


0,2


0,2


Secondary vocational education


24,5


24,4


24,5


25,1


Initial vocational education


13,2


11,2


11,3


10,4


Secondary (full) General


29,3


31,4


32,0


28,6


Basic General


6,3


6,9


5,6


5,0


Do not have basic General


0,8


0,7


0,9


0,6



This indicates a low educational level of the working population, which does not allow them to carry out innovative function in the system of economic security. This is another barrier to the growth of the middle class.


Dynamics of main indicators of the development of higher professional education reflects the reduction in the number of higher education institutions and number of students in them (table 2). This is a result of education reform, which aims to improve the quality of education. Perhaps this campaign and will lead to increased quality education, however, already led to a reduction of universities, teachers and students. The result of this process is reflected in the statistical reporting today: the number of students declined in 2014 5.9 thousand people compared to 2011, over the same period, the number of higher education institutions decreased by 4%.


The obtained data indicates a reduction specialists with higher education - potential middle class, able to bear the economic and social effects by performing innovative function in modern society. This is the next barrier to increasing the share of the middle class in the Stavropol region.


Table 2 - Main indicators of the development of higher professional education of Stavropol region (beginning of academic year)[2]



2011 - 2012 year


2012 – 2013 year


2013 – 2014 year


just


in % of total


just


in % of total


just


in % of total


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


The number of higher educational institutions, including


84


42


81


39


78


38


state and municipal


53



50



46



non-governmental


31



31



32



The number of students (thousand), including


140,4


70


140,6


70,7


134,5


69,4


state and municipal


113,3



112,7



109,0



non-governmental


27,1



27,9



25,5



Welcome


32,3


58,8


30,8


57,4


27,8


53,9


Release


29,1


58,2


30,2


61,6


29,7


61,1


In addition to the above barriers, educational subsystem of particular importance is the imbalance of the labour market, which is reflected in the qualitative mismatch of supply and demand. Despite the fact that every year the specialists with higher and secondary level qualifications, staffing is quite a serious problem for the region. In accordance with the data presented in table 3, we can conclude: the greatest demand among specialties and areas of educational institutions use such as Economics and management, Humanities, and the lowest of the vehicle and the social Sciences. In our opinion, the choice of majors students due to occupational prestige and personal motives, not the real demand on the labour market, which is a problem wearing a multiplicative character, as reflected in the region's economy and its security.


Table 3 - graduates of higher educational institutions by groups of specialties in the Stavropol region (people)[3]



2011 year


2012 year


2013 year


2014 year


1


2


3


4


5


Issued specialists including specialty groups:


29993


31447


30720


31978


Economics and management


11745


12715


12065


12331


human Sciences


7081


7235


7460


7649


education and pedagogy


2646


2263


2147


2513


health


1191


1317


1239


1371


service sector


893


1049


1059


1214


construction and architecture


631


793


823


1020


computer science and engineering


810


839


874


846


agriculture and fisheries


1027


1072


1017


842


transport vehicles


634


725


713


743


social science


525


501


399


439


Specialists of higher qualification does not meet the needs of organizations employees for substitutions vacancies. So, in the group of specialists of the highest qualification the need for workers was in 2013 2140 people (figure 1). Of them the most sought after were the experts in the field of health (1288 vacancies), however, from the point of view of prestige for students, this specialty is only 4 position; architecture and engineering (285 vacancies) - this aspect is not included in the three specialties, which occupies a leading position.


Figure 1 - organizations Need workers to fill vacant jobs for most popular professional group of specialists of the highest qualification level (man)[4]


Based on what we can conclude the following: on the territory of Stavropol region the trend of the structural mismatch between supply and demand of specialists of higher qualification in the labour market.


This situation is characteristic of the labour market specialists of medium qualification level (table 4, figure 2).


Table 4 - Production specialists average special educational institutions by groups of specialties in the Stavropol region (people)[5]



2011 year


2012 year


2013 year


2014 year


1


2


3


4


5


Issued specialists


including specialty groups:


12388


11485


10174


10072


Economics and management


2828


2530


2385


2522


health


1418


1603


1398


1526


Humanities


982


960


968


978


technology of food products and consumer goods


947


859


704


804


education and pedagogy


1239


1033


943


763


computer science and engineering


880


889


722


685


construction and architecture


675


639


541


473


transport vehicles


790


648


560


436


agriculture and fisheries


678


576


451


427


power and electrical engineering


356


309


220


247


Figure 2 - organizations Need workers to fill vacant jobs by occupational group professionals mid-level qualifications (persons)[6]


So, the priority among the areas of medium skill level belongs to subjects such as Economics and management, health Sciences and Humanities, less demand transport, agriculture and fisheries, energy and electrical engineering. The data of figure 2 again confirm the fact that the mismatch between supply and demand in the mid-level professionals in the Stavropol territory.


The number of vacant jobs in the group of specialists of medium qualification level in 2013 amounted 1415 vacancies, most of which was for the professions of nurses (nurse practitioners, technicians, physiotherapists, pharmacists, etc), medical staff (nurses and technicians-electricians. However, these positions are not in demand among students in secondary vocational schools, which is confirmed by table 4.


Comparing data on the needs of organizations in the workers senior and mid-level qualifications and graduates of higher and secondary special educational institutions of Stavropol region, we can conclude the following: the landscape is predominantly negative trend in the mismatch between demand and supply on the labour market, which is a "barrier" of the formation and development of the middle class, as well as a threat to economic stability.


So, for 2011-2014 on criterion "level of education" share of total middle class was 26.4%, which is the result of the following barriers: imbalances in the labour market, lack of motivation and incentives in the population of the region in improving the quality of education (which is caused by imbalances in wages), the negative consequences of educational reform, leading to the reduction potential of the middle class.


Based on the data on share of total middle class according to the criterion "level of education" share the periphery was in 2011 - 24.7%, in 2012 - to 25.3% in 2013 to 25.5% in 2014 to 30.1%.


Open questions remain about the results of the relevance of the educational potential of the middle classes. As expected, the demand for human capital changes increase in social status.


In our opinion, the development and implementation of innovative educational cluster will be a critical step in shaping the development of the middle strata of the population.


However, the consideration of innovation and education cluster does not stop only on the development of higher professional education, it affects both vocational and General education. The creation of this cluster involves the creation of modern education standards, a two-level system (bachelor, master), teaching staff mobility, transition into Autonomous institutions etc., Therefore, the potential of the education system really exists, it is only necessary to use it effectively.


A large number of higher education institutions currently in the North Caucasus finds no justification, since it makes us think about the eligibility of their educational process and the quality of knowledge and skills provided by them. These trends are reflected in various spheres of human activity, because to find a highly competent young professional is not only a problem of the North Caucasus Federal district, but also in other regions. Higher education at the present time for the youth of today is prestige, but, unfortunately, not very many are thinking about the importance of the quality to contemporary reality.


The lack of attention to secondary special institutions in the 90-ies finds its echo in the present: a failure in the working professions, labor shortages - all of this allows us to develop industry regions.


The problem of schools requires special attention, because the quality of education (in many schools) does not allow graduates to enroll in the leading Russian universities. Students have to obtain additional knowledge outside of school, because the base of which is given in schools is not enough to pass the unified state examination at the appropriate level. And now, for the students, the exam is a good start in life. You need to think about what determines the quality of school education: the state standard or the quality of services provided.


Of course, the investment support of the educational system is an important step in the development of the "new" education system, because the buildings will be equipped with all necessary equipment for the development of talented and promising young people, and the financial support of the teaching staff will be an incentive for the development of their professional skills and transfer of knowledge, skills, and abilities to future generations. School, specialized secondary schools, institutions of higher learning are the highest priority is the preservation of traditional ways of life and stabilization of modern society.


Innovation and education cluster involves firstly, the creation of a large University centres, implying the availability of quality faculty, which will be provided educational mobility, availability of sports facilities, because the health of our future generations is essential to the development of the state; secondly, the development of vocational schools, assistance in education and development which should provide not only public authorities, but also large companies (Rosneft, Gazprom, etc). Innovation and education cluster will not only create decent conditions for teachers but also for students. Thus, it is expected to create about 50 thousand jobs in the near future, while large corporations and companies will help to create a sort of technical schools for training or continuing education for the non-working population in those occupations that are in demand at present.


To create a new educational center affects not only higher educational establishments and vocational schools and schools that will allow for the exchange of experience, the formation of a unified approach to education and educational standards. However, because the North Caucasus is a multinational, and, according to many experts, one of the most difficult Russian regions, it is necessary to take into account both national and religious factors in the formation of this cluster.


Repeatedly, project experts to assess the quality of education say about the lack of communication between educational institutions, on the one hand, enterprises and agencies, on the other, which significantly inhibits the development of the economy. And the formation of any kind of clusters is intended to revive the economy of the region, the North Caucasus at the moment need.


Thus, through effective innovation and education cluster will be solved a number of problems already at this stage: unemployment, through the availability of highly qualified specialists; the stabilization of the economic system, through the formation and development of effective middle class.


The "new" education system will perform not only integrating, sociological, but azeotropically role, creating an innovative resource that will seek to create new social practices. Thus, it is necessary to examine the role of the education cluster in the system of the formation and development of the middle class, because, for designing the "new" social policy in the North Caucasus Federal district, the most important is the determination of the capacity of the middle class at the expense of the layers located in the lower social stratum. Accordingly, it is necessary to determine the impact of the "new" education system on the scale and intensity of the movements in the social structure of society.


Analyzing the idea of the "middle class" modern political scientists and sociologists, we conclude that in all material reservations the middle class really is the decisive force, has in addition to stabilizing, consolidating functions and innovation [7], because it is the basis of formation of the intellectual potential of the country, the STP engine that allows you to provide in the countries of the Western type preventing unsustainable use of natural resources, modernization of industries, and, therefore, the provision of state independence, stability, ability to self-development and progress. The complexity of the identification of the middle class currently largely exacerbated by the following phenomena: the immaturity of the social structure, significant violations of relations between criterial characteristics of social groups, including deformation traditional chain: "education - professional status - income - identity".


The dependence of the social status of education is determined by the following circumstances. First, belonging to the kernel of the middle classes requires a high level of education of citizens, and secondly, the middle classes have the most updated education, thirdly, the middle classes are the children of highly educated parents. The core of the middle classes today are predominantly citizens with higher education, at least in the second generation, which is important for a variety of reasons, and chief among them is that the middle classes reproduce existing patterns of social behavior. The pursuit of higher education is a key element of this social behavior. [3,8] Thus, the middle class is clearly and significantly different from their social environment, indicating the presence of significant social barrier that separates the middle class from "Naslednik" and about the size of the resources needed to overcome it.


From the foregoing it is possible to conclude the following: the role of innovation and education cluster formation conditions for the development of the middle class, from a theoretical point of view is justified, because education as a social institution responsible for the production of unique resource - human capital. And the "new" education system performs in society not only sociological and azeotropically role, but also integrating. The modern system of education will create an innovative resource that will seek to create new social practices and the development of the regions and the country as a whole.


However, in recent years has decreased the level of welfare of a significant part of skilled professionals, since mental health in the country are poorly paid and as a result the middle class has shrunk. The demand for educated and highly skilled professionals at the present time, unfortunately, falls, and part of the middle class in recent years I've started to work.  Therefore, it is possible to argue that there is a fairly large gap, which by objective and subjective criteria can join the ranks of the middle class under favorable economic development and a stable political situation that will allow it to become the basis of a full-fledged middle class in the emerging new Russia.


It is a comprehensive strategy for socio-economic development of the North Caucasus Federal district, where one of the most important places will take innovation and education cluster, and to allow for stabilization and harmonization of social relations in the region. Innovation and education cluster will be the basis for the formation of the middle class in the region, and will contribute to the formation of competent, well-qualified personnel, form the basis of the middle class - the main productive force of society, which will bring the North Caucasus Federal district to the innovative way of development.


The scope of the results.


Data obtained from analysis of the distribution of the middle class in the Stavropol territory, has allowed to determine the direction of adjustment of the strategy of socio-economic development of the North Caucasus Federal district as the creation of innovative educational cluster. The results of the study are applicable in the practice not only of public authorities (Federal and regional), as well as in the activities of municipal authorities in policy-making in education and socio-economic development.


The novelty. Within the adjustments of socio-economic policy areas proposed the creation of an innovation education cluster as a mechanism for the formation and development of the middle class. The introduction of the proposed innovation and education cluster in the framework of the strategy for socio-economic development of territories [the North Caucasus Federal district] will increase the level of education of the population, the formation and development of effective middle class and economic security by ensuring the stability of the socio-economic system and harmonization in her social relations.


Conclusion. Thus, the role of innovation and education cluster formation conditions for the development of the middle class, from a theoretical point of view is justified, because education as a social institution responsible for the production of unique resource - human capital. And the "new" education system performs in society not only sociological and azeotropically role, but also integrating. The modern system of education, through the establishment of the innovation and education cluster, will create an innovative resource that will seek to create new social practices and the development of the regions and the country as a whole.



[1] Territorial body of Federal state statistics service of the Stavropol region. URL: http://stavstat.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/stavstat/ru//; Labour and employment in Russia. 2013. - http://www.gks.ru; Economic activity of the population. 2013. - http://www.gks.ru;



[2] Stavropol region in figures, 2014. Statistical Bulletin / Territorial body of Federal state statistics service of the Stavropol region. - 2014 - S. 231;



[3] Higher and secondary special educational institutions in the region. Statistical Bulletin / territorial body of Federal state statistics service of the Stavropol region. 93 - 2014 - N-12 (S. 45);



[4]  On the number and needs of organizations of workers in occupational groups. / Territorial body of Federal state statistics service of the Stavropol region. 2013. - S. 12;


[5] Higher and secondary special educational institutions in the region. Statistical Bulletin / territorial body of Federal state statistics service of the Stavropol region. 93 - 2014 - N-12 (S. 45);


[6] On the number and needs of organizations of workers in occupational groups. / Territorial body of Federal state statistics service of the Stavropol region. 2014. - S. 12;


Ключевые слова/Tags1: middle class, cluster, strategy, level of education, socio-economic development.