Contemporary Problems of Social Work
A Comprehensive Method of Reservoir Water Cleaning (the open bay of Anapa resort) (Experimental results for planning non-traditional devices of reservoir water cleanly)
Автор/Author: Pinskaja M.V., Sheglov A.N.
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In recent years a controversy has been under way among the experts about the ecological situation in Anapa Bay. Local residents and holiday-makers raise the alarm about accumulation of decaying algae in the coastal area of the bay in the summer month-at the time of summer vacations , , . Free-floating algae or CladophoraVagabunda (locally known as “Kamka”) have always existed on the Anapa sand at all times, moreover they were used in medical purposes. Among the holiday-makers early in the 20th century in was believed that decaying seaweed, washed out into the sand, a positive impact on the health and is even capable to cure many deseases. But in resent years with the increase of the seawater pollution the amount of “Kamka” in the Bay has increased dramatically, resulting in deterioration of the seawater in the Bay.
The clean sand-free algae need to find some possible application and them the Bay pollution with free-floating algae can be solved. Free-floating algae contain from 40 to 45% of vegetative protein, 30-35%of carbohydrates, up to 11% of lipids. Those algae are not only rich in easily digested organic iodine, but also iron, zinc, cooper, cobalt and other microelements. They contain a full range or vitamins, amino acids and biologically substances including for example polysaccharide fucedk and have a huge antitumor potential.
The lecturers and students of RSSU, Anapa Branch, proposed an original method of mechanical treatment of the water of the Bay, similar to aeration of the water in aquariums  (Fig.1).
Fig. 1. Implementation of the comprehensive method of reservoir water cleaning.
Besides, the high efficiency of the method has been proved by the sea test of the models and pilot models, capable of collecting selectively only nightly propagating in summer free floating algae (CladophoraVagabunda or “Kamka”). The advantage of this method of cleaning is the ability to control the amount of algae in the Bay at different stages of their growth. Now the seaweed are collected together with the sand only near the sea-shore (Pics 1 and 2)
Pics. 1 and 2
To explain the principle of operation of the complex refer to Fig.2.
In shallow waters the algae, is collected by a module (like a vacuum cleaner), containing sectional auger to increase the concentration or algae, a wringing – on gear and a floating container for interim disposal. At the depth from 0,5 to 3m the second device raises the free-floating algae onto the surface (by the flow of the air bubbles) where they are collected by another module and its principle of operation is similar to that working in the shallow waters.
The chart (Fig.2) is plotted in the motion plane and allows to determine:
the motion speed of the carrier a boat in the sea or a vehicle on the shore, at equal speeds of the rise of algae and the carrier’s speed during the time of the algae rise at any depth onto the surface – to the site of their rise a mechanical extractor is coming up;
the trajectory of plunge-rise of bubble emitters relative to the carrier-boat with an arbitrary change of the depth (theoretically it is a plane inclined 45 degrees towards the movement of the carrier-boat, in reality it is an are 3-4);
almost all distances between bubble emitters, mechanical extractor and carrier-boot for operation at the depth of up to 3m;
minimal dimensions of the mechanical extractor.
It is not possible ,  at present to obtain accurate initial data for the design by theoretical calculating method. In this regard (as well as to attract attention of public and businessmen to the problem of seawater cleaning in the Anapa Bay, to the possible utilisation of the collected algae and to prove the effect and efficiency of our proposals) models and pilot models have been made in the lab of the RSSU, Anapa Branch. Pilot models for the sea-tests have been made in the work-shops of “the Health Resort Service” – municipal enterprise and installed in a boat in the sea port of Anapa (Pic. 3)
The experimental reseach have been made as a part of the innovation development project under the State Cowtrat№ 11245/16833 deted 28.04.2012 (Report on the innovative research project “Device models development for the water in reservoirs”. RSSU, Anapa Branch, 2013 under the scientific guidance of A. N. Sheglov).
Some methodological issues and results of 2009 – 2013 tests are given below, allowing to determine the main initial data for pilot models development.
The uncertainty of the algae location by depth and the need to introduce control automation of the high speed motion mode of the carrier-boat during operation of the machinery for selective action can be taken into account only while determining the rate of rise of the free-floating algae by the air bubbles flow. To determine the rate of rise traditionally is necessary to make the under-water photography, which even whis a small amount of algae is impossible due to the poor visibility and consequently ensuring the divers safety.
Therefore, to determine the rate of rise of the algae by a flow of air bubbles an indirect method has been used. That is the time measurement of the algae rise from a certain depth after the compressor has been turned off. To minimise errors the compressed air amount was restricted only by a minimum required length of the air pipe (the inner diameter – 6mm ,the length – 4.5m .With the performance of each compression 35 l/min and the full capacity of the air pipe – 0.5 l the total error, due to inertia , is dozens of milliseconds or less than 1%. The main air bubbles model emitter is linear rectangular and tubular П-shared having the dimensions 35x25 cm, and pilot models-linear 30cm.The rate of rise of the algae by means of the air bubbles flow determined by tests is appox. 0.3 m/sec.
The length of the emitter is determined by a minimum time for the formation of the air bubbles flow (about 1 sec.) at the speed of 0.3 m/sec corresponds to the length of 30-35cm.
The research was crunched only sea-bottom and sometimes, with clean water and with low to medium amount of free-flouting algae. Models and pilot models of tubular emitters forming the field of air bubbls from 25cm to 1.5 m and internals between the individual emitters 6,5 cm to 25cm were tested at depths from 0.5 to 4.5 m . The minimum time of formation of the air bubbles flow is appox 1 sec, which means at the non-stop motion that in each specific point the emitter must emit bubbles for not less than that time. To meet those requirements the emitter must during that time move parallel to the water surface to provide the chosen design in the shape of a parallelogram.
The width of the emitters field was chosen devisille. To 1.5m with the distance from 6.5 cm to 25cm. The best result was oltained at the distance up to 15–18 cm.The plunging depth of the emitters was up to 4.5 m during the tests (which is out of reach of the swimmers) .The tests have shown it is betters to collect the algae at the depth of 2.5–3.0 m.
During the sea tests we determined the width of the air bubbles flow depending on the of pluning the emitter ,but only in clean (with no algae) waters. This is due to the lack of possibility of the underwater photography because of the presence of seaweeds in the water.
As no definition of the amount of the free-floating seaweeds in the seawater at different stages of the algae life-span has not been found in the literature, four stages of the water vegetation are prorused .The minimum vegetation is the amount of the green seaweed corresponding to the lack of visibility of the sea bottom at 15–20cm depth, the medium – at the depth of 0,8m and more. There appears a layer of clean water of 5 – 15cm (due to slightly greater amount of the specific weight of the algae). With higher intensity of vegetation it is throughout the whole depth to the water surface and the fourth and highest intensity the seaweeds even dump small waves in the sea.
One of the main parameters with an effect on the operation of the 3-section anger is to determine the critical angles of sliding the algae from different materials. The critical angle of sliding is calculated from the direction vector of movement of the smooth metal wire, nylon and cotton threads . As experimentally determined, for the smooth metal and plastic surface those angles are 140 degrees, for the other materials – over 150 degrees. The critical angles of sliding depend greatly on even slightly rough surfaces. So, with the slight rust on the metal the algae practically do not slide from them up to 180 degrees, they had to be shaken off.
At that stage of the tests the aquarium air pulverizes with the flow rate of 11l/min per each water of the depth were used. Also were used automobile batteries, automotive engines and compressors (with the capacity up to 35l/min and maximum pressure up to 11 bar), tubular. Aluminum and steel structures, plastic and wooden elements, an engine and gearbox from Oka tiller.
The algae collection process should not be carried out at an early stage of the seaweed growth, as while the seaweeds are growing they extract microelements thug purifying the sea water. But even at the beginning of the algae decay and decomposition, the air flow is not capable to raise them to the surface (hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties are changing at different stages of algae life-span).
The test results including the conditions of different intensity of the vegetation in the seawater (free-floating algae) on the sand sea-bed and with the growth of the seaweed at different stages of algae growth are given below and can be used as a baseline for the preparation:
the average rate of the algae rise at the stage of their low and medium growth of 0,3 m/sec, which is not contrary to the data ,, for clean water;
the minimum time of the air bubbles flow formation is 1–1,5 sec ;
the minimum length of the emitter – 30 – 35 cm ;
the optimum size of the air bubbles – 2 – 4 mm (with the excess of pressure by 0.12 – 0.2 bar) which corresponds to the maximum rate of their rice for the clean water ,  (the size of sure of the bubbles in the flow was up to 1.0 – 3.0 cm due to the use of standard tubular aquarium aerators);
large-size bubbles do not provide good Foaming with the algae and less effectively support the seaweeds on the water surface ;
with the plunging depth over 0.8 larger-size bubbles emerge the surface due to the decrease of pressure at their rise and junction ;
the rate and amount of the raised seaweed decrease with the algae aging (from green to brown and even darker shades), and with the feigning of their decay the rise practically stops (muddy black water rises),;
the noted width of the flow varies depending or the dept. with the first 25 – 30 cm the flow widens by 40 – 60 %, the at each meter the width is very small, approx. 5 – 11 % ;
with highly intensive algae – more than medium, their rise is hampered, the rise rate is insignificant, the air bubbles flow is unsteady (it is getting wider and is deviating). At the same time the air bubbles are increasing in size and decreasing in number, which can be explained by their junction, but it is impossible to assess the process going on underwater;
the possibly to collect only free-floating algae has been proved; the seaweeds growing from the sea-bed and having a root system could not be form off by the flow of the air bubbles even at the increase of pressure from 0.15 – 0.2 to 0.6 bar;
the angles of sliding from the meted and nylon are 140 – 145 degrees, or the wood and cotton they exceed 150 degrees fnd increase considerably for rough surface (for example ,rusty metal);
the capture width is not less than 65–70 cm , its length depends on the carrier boat and determines the efficiency of the whole complex;
the ratio of the raised algae in still water is close to 1. Most of the algae after having been raised from the depth is floating. The time to rennet the seaweeds on the water surface depends greatly on the stage of their growth. For the early stages of growth it is up to 5-7 sec. At the later stages they are sinking practically at once. .
Some test result must be confirmed during the further test in 2015.