Contemporary Problems of Social Work
Display the socio-economic situation of a family in modern mass media
Автор/Author: Leontyeva T.V
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Relevance of sociological research display of economic and social situation of a family in modern mass media is caused by change of a role of mass media, as in everyday life of certain individuals, and societies in general . The main translator of the created image of marriage and a family are mass media. The image of a family with characteristics inherent in it, such as economic and social situation, number of members, structure, the interpersonal relations and so on which appears in mass media, in many respects defines models of family behavior, creates standards of the family relations which, have considerable impact on outlook of each individual. By means of identification and a projection of people unconsciously imitates images of a family which are broadcast to mass media.
Individuals, as a rule, accept those social norms of behavior which are convincingly propagandized by mass media as a positive stereotype of a way of life. So there is a socialization of the individual according to norms, desirable for society during this historical period.
Now growth of various negative phenomena in the sphere of marriage and a family - such as birth rate reduction, reduction of number registered marriages and increase in divorces, distribution of an ideal of a uniparous family, weakening of related communications, and also distribution of various deviant forms of family behavior is observed. The distorted ideas of a family, stereotypes and myths about stories of formation of a family, about families of outstanding state and political figures of the past and the present, incorrect and improbable display of economic and social situation of a family in mass media, and in general its negative image which is also propagandized by mass media can be the possible reason of these phenomena.
In the Concept of the state family policy of the Russian Federation for the period till 2025 weakening of institute of a family and traditional family values directly coordinates with an adverse information background. The main manifestations of this background aggressive promotion of family trouble, violence, disrespect for parents, hatred to children admit.
The sociological researches conducted by Zh. Bodriyyar , Zh. Lothar, Zh. Deleza, E. Noel-Neumann , are devoted by E. Toffler to problems of mass consciousness of post-industrial society. Among the domestic scientists who made the significant contribution to development of this direction it is necessary to mark out V.A. Yadov , Ya.N. Zasursky , E.V. Suslova , etc.
According to the theory of information society developed by D. Bell, changes in society are put not in contents of information, and in means of its transfer, i.e. in mass media. Often mass media were considered within theories of mass communication, in works G. Gode, K. Manngeym, P. Lazarsfeld, V. Pareto is highlighted a role of mass media in formation of public opinion.
Researchers of mass communication who developed theories and methodologies of mass communication, B. A. Grushin, Alekseev V. Z., T.A. Dridze, I.V. Lysakov, B. M. Firsov, A.N. Kogan.
Large number of works as domestic researchers (T.A. Yeliseyeva, O. V. Kovrigina, V. K. Sergeyev , K.A. Tarasov, A.V. Fedorov, G. I. Scherbakova , Mozolinf A.V, M. A. Shishkina), and also foreign (Bryant D. and Thompson of C., Briggz A. and Kobli , Maklyuena M. ) it is devoted to studying of impact of mass media on public consciousness, motives of acts of individuals, in particular youth.
The most known researches devoted to mass media and their influence in the context of problems of communication and informatization belong to M. Kastels , Zh.-L. Servanus-Shtreybera. It is necessary to distinguish T.V. Naumenko, St. Borisnev, A.D. Elyakov , M. M. Nazarov's works from domestic authors. At the same time, in the modern sociological science of insufficiently specialized literature and researches devoted to display of economic and social situation of a family, but in E.I. Kravchenko, A.B. Hoffman, I.V. Groshev's applied researches, P.M. Yampolskoy evidence-based indicators of influence of mass media on formation of a certain image of a family come to light.
Mass media unite as special type of communication where there is a transfer of the message to the recipient of information unknown and not certain quantitatively, with the individual and collective subject (it is meant it not only a co-authorship, but also, for example, a common position of the newspaper, TV or a radio channel) and the mass dispersed addressee . However modern mass media are directed and on certain segments of audience: children, youth, elderly people; and on certain subjects: culture, housekeeping, etc.
Our ideas of the world develop from this that we see and we hear, and the volume of information grows so quickly that the person isn't capable to perceive huge actual data any more. Various technological ways of delivery of information offer audience only certain options, fragments of vision of the world . Owing to the nature these delivery systems of information are the media technological intermediaries presenting some fragments of reality to the viewer . In other words, formation of the content of communication is socially designed process, and depends on the purposes and tasks of authors.
The huge resource which is responsible for formation of image of a family is the television  which possesses a complex of factors of influence, and also thanks to the popularity is the most interesting and actual for studying of display of economic and social situation of a family in mass media therefore for this research the television as a component of mass media was chosen as us. The choice of the studied TV channels occurred by means of the analysis of a rating of popularity, number of viewings and an index of a quoting by means of Medialogiya system, consisting of the mass media database and the automated analytical module. "Medialogiya" contains interpretations of all television plots of federal channels of a political broadcasting. As the volume of information broadcasting of federal channels is rather great, for carrying out the content analysis and application of an interpretive method the author used materials from the First TV channel which takes the leading position in this rating.
The purposes of the person, his relation with other people, system of values and outlook, criteria of taste and nature of behavior of the individual in many respects depend on economic and social situation of a family in which it was born, brought up and lives  at present. The social environment, education, an occupation, level of the income, the power etc. enter concept of economic and social situation.
The social status also is a multicomponent indicator which includes demographic characteristics, a source and the size of the income, a profession, education, a social origin. It is possible to claim that information preferences, requirements and the size of the funds allocated for their satisfaction, y of different layers the various.
As a rule, individuals seek to follow norms and customs of the class or to imitate those who costs above them on public "ladder" . And if the housing, furniture, food and entertainments usually correspond to a real social status of the individual, such consumer categories as clothes and cars often belong elements of imitation .
Researches showed that "the ispolkzovaniye of certain media in much depended on education level of the person … In comparison with better educated age-mates poorly educated people are inclined to listen more radio, and to watch even more TV. At the same time people with higher education level preferred printing media broadcasting" . It must be kept in mind that education as the social and economic characteristic, is interconnected with age, the level of the income and an occupation.
Another, maybe, to the most important economic indicators of provision of a family is the income. Of course, in different groups various consumer habits and tastes are created: families with the different level of the income not simply buy different products, but also estimate them differently, place different priorities. When studying level of the income, it is important to designate this level not only in its degree (low, average, high), but also in a digital form as the understanding of low or high y of each person is own, subjective. Also it must be kept in mind that the identical income in a digital form can be estimated differently in various regions.
The author carried out the analysis of advertizing on the First TV channel. As showed research, at advertizing of any production except the purpose of advance of goods and services in the market always there is a valuable implication. Advertizing presents to the consumer goods which has to cause positive emotions with the help of the images familiar to people which are associated with something pleasant or which are connected with these associations. Very often advertizing uses an image of a family as it is of great value for the person. The person unconsciously identifies himself with characters of advertizing. The advertizing using an image of a family inspires trust of potential buyers as the family of y of many people is associated with care, caress, warmth and warm-heartedness.
Family members in advertizing are represented joyful and happy. Unconsciously the viewer reaches for this image, y it there is a desire to make the family of the family approached to an image in advertizing that involves need to acquire the advertized goods.
Advertizing tries to direct the impact on the maximum number of potential buyers. As ideas of an ideal family coincide not y of everything, an optimum image of a family is nuclear. The expanded type is used in advertizing of those products which by means of an image of grandmothers and grandfathers seek to show naturalness of a product.
Advertizing uses generally an image of a family with high prosperity that is emphasized with an interior and clothes. The family in advertizing - an odnodetna, is more rare - dvukhdetna. That is advertizing doesn't establish a happy image a large family that influences subconsciousness of the person. Children, as a rule, heterosexual are also presented as mischievous persons, fidgets, lovely kids or assistants. Founders of advertizing focus attention on traditional cast. The wife usually cooks food, cleans the apartment, goes shopping, looks after children. Girls most often help mothers to prepare, and boys spend time with the father. The father reads the newspaper, works, goes fishing with the son, washes the car, the grandmother – knits, the grandfather gives a wise advice.
The great attention has the text, most often it is the story, a monologue, or the short slogan, a conclusion which the viewer has to make, having watched a video. The text directly turned to family values underlines importance of a family for promotion of the production.
It is possible to draw o conclusion that advertizing displays idealized economic and social situation of a family, is not valid as has the purpose creation of the positive emotions connected with the advertized object.
The analysis of entertainment events was shown, on the contrary, by conflict, negative emotions. The analysis of lexemes allowed to draw a conclusion that entertaining telecasts are duplicated mainly by an image of a malodetny family, that is one - two children. The materials devoted to questions of population policy of the state, protection of motherhood and the childhood, legislative initiatives in the sphere of a demography of female reproductive and children's health meet not so often. Materials about device problems in seven orphan children are practically in each transfer. As a rule, the narration goes about concrete families, about ways and problems of education of children, the relations in a family and most often their negative manifestations. The emphasis is placed on independence, personal success, career development, a priority of personal needs over needs of family members, as opposed to values of a family and motherhood in particular, lift such problems as living conditions, complexity of combination of professional and family duties of the woman, a lack of financial means, the difficult interpersonal relations between parents and children, spouses, changes. Young families, nuclear families are shown.
Television series are very popular today, they are made and consumed in large numbers and became the integral component of life of the modern person . Generally the main characters of series – youth (persons from 16 to 30 years) are physically healthy, watching themselves young men and girls. They aren't married, and as a rule, are trained at comprehensive school or higher education institution. Live in the city who-to it is constant, and someone arrived to it for the period of study. The general for all heroes is also uncertainty of their religious status. Other aspects of their economic and social situation vary depending on the specific personality.
Research of economic and social situation of a family allowed to allocate 5 categories of characters: "gilded youth", "fans of beautiful life", "normalist", "group youth" and "devianty-loner".
"Gilded youth". Representatives of this category – young people from provided families in which, nevertheless, except for the high income not everything is safe. Parents of heroes or already divorced, or on its threshold that negatively affects a psychological state of children and their relations with parents. Seeking to defend the independence, young people often enter the conflicts.
Parents initially provide to "gilded youth" a high launch pad, both for receiving quality education, and for further creation of successful career. However here strategy of behavior can differ depending on spiritual characteristics of the personality. One continue to take advantages of the high social status of a family, remain on position of dependents, and aren't engaged thus in accumulation of the intellectual capital. Other representatives of "gilded youth", on the contrary, seek for self-realization in the productive, useful and approved by society activity. Material prosperity acts as incentive for study and work, and eventually, justifications through work of the high social status.
"Fans of beautiful life". If for "gilded youth" expensive restaurants, fashionable clubs and boutiques, parties on yachts and known world resorts are a native habitat that is caused by their belonging to a certain circle of well-founded families, "fans of beautiful life", occurring from families with middle-income, persistently try to try on on themselves samples of the glamourous life presented on pages of glossy magazines. Their behavior is constructed on imitation of "gilded youth", first of all to its appearance. Consumption of status expensive subjects (clothes, accessories, equipment), or their copies equivalents, care of compliance of own body to standards of glossy magazines are built in a cult. Also visit of secular parties, unlike establishments of science, culture or education is necessary. Out of the sphere of interest there is an educational, professional activity, political, civil activity. The family is also not perceived as value though the considerable attention is paid to the sexual relations and their regularity.
"Group youth". In spite of the fact that in television series, first of all, identity of heroes as persons, but not representatives of any social groups is emphasized, it is necessary to distinguish category of "group youth" in which representation the stereotypes which developed in society are most often used. These young people actively defend group values and follow the group norms regulating both behavior, and appearance. The last fact allows to identify easily them by means of supervision.
"Devianty-odinochki". The deviant behavior of youth is shown in various forms: smoking and drinking of alcoholic drinks in educational institution, drug addiction, criminal activity (for example, beating, theft, blackmail), such asocial activity as repeated deception, instigation, an insult, disrespect for seniors and so forth. This category of youth is formed by mainly young people of families with middle-income, perhaps, incomplete, characterized by the conflict relations between her members. Representatives of this group don't succeed in study, education isn't for them value, but they as well don't work. Their social activity is monotonous, hobbies and hobbies don't enter it.
"Normalista". This group is formed by youth of families of an average and below middle-income, focused, and it is its main characteristic, on observance of the legal and moral standards accepted by society. Social activity of "normalist" is shown in various spheres. As a rule, they participate in public life, out of educational activity of the educational institutions, are members of clubs and visit circles, self-study. Representatives of this group find considerable time for study, some combine it with work (as for the purpose of obtaining skills in the field of professional specialization, and simply additional earnings, providing themselves and a family).
The allocated categories of youth aren't mutually exclusive, signs of this or that type can be present at an image of one character at the same time.
One more formulated research question concerned the stamps and stereotypes used in designing of economic and social situation which as were shown by the analysis, really, were applied in series. So, the conventional "Beauties" surrounded man's attention appear as the girl far from subject matters, possessing, however, everyday sharpness. They watch the appearance, put on brightly, brightly, sometimes even, too provocatively, choosing the corresponding bright make-up. Short skirts, deep cuts, frank poses and relaxed behavior – all this accents sexuality of heroines and makes out the central idea of an image – to be object of man's attention.
Unlike "Beauties" of "Honours pupil" they put on not strikingly, modestly. The main occupation for them is a study, but their mind doesn't admire surrounding young people. "Honours pupils" often become object of sneers, them consider defective and suffering from various complexes.
The image of "Athlete" as silly person, with the person deprived of intelligence which all the time goes in sportswear looks sample, whose movements are dexterous only on trainings and look clumsily in everyday life.
Thus, we analysed display of economic and social situation of a family in modern mass media. Images of a family in advertizing, entertaining telecasts and modern youth series are analysed. Display of economic and social situation of a family considerably differs, depending on a type of television mass media, functions and the purposes which are set before themselves by founders of this content.
So, it is possible to draw o conclusion that advertizing displays idealized economic and social situation of a family as has the purpose creation of the positive emotions connected with the advertized object.
The analysis of entertainment events was shown, on the contrary, by conflict, negative emotions. Content - the analysis allowed to draw a conclusion that entertaining telecasts place emphasis on such problems as living conditions, complexity of combination of professional and family duties of the woman, a lack of financial means, the difficult interpersonal relations between parents and children, spouses, changes, is shown young families, nuclear families.
In television series aspects of economic and social situation vary depending on the specific personality. There is also "gilded youth" – young people from provided families, whose parents initially provide quality education, and further creation of successful career. "Fans of beautiful life" who come from families with middle-income, persistently try to try on on themselves samples of life of the upper class of the population. The devianty-odinochki group is formed by mainly young people of families with middle-income, perhaps, incomplete, characterized by the conflict relations between her members. The normalisty group is formed by youth of families of an average and below middle-income, focused on observance of the legal and moral standards accepted by society.
The importance of research of display of economic and social situation of a family in modern mass media is caused by that its results can be used within realization of family policy for promotion of a family way of life, the safe and prospering large family, registration of marriage in the REGISTRY OFFICE, at schools, educational institutions and the rehabilitation centers.